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Thakur P.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Mathur A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board | Gautam S.B.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University | Balomajumder C.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Rahul,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Bioremediation Journal | Year: 2013

A laboratory-scale biofilter unit packed with a mixture of compost, sugarcane bagasse, and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the ratio of 55:30:15 by weight was used for a biofiltration study of air stream containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX). The effect of superficial velocity on mass transfer coefficient for the packing was studied by maintaining gas flow rates of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 L min-1 for inlet concentrations of 0.1, 0.4, and 0.8 g m-3 for each of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene. The maximum elimination capacity was found to be 20.92, 22.72, 20.73, and 18.94 g m-3 h-1 for BTEX, respectively, for stated flow rates. Removal efficiency of BTEX decreased from 99% to 71% for increasing inlet concentration from 0.1 to 0.8 g m-3. Gas film mass transfer coefficient predicted by modified Onda's equation was within ±10% of the experimental values. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Rahul,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Mathur A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board | Balomajumder C.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

In the present work, a laboratory scale corn-cob based biofilter inoculated with Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 8103) was used for degradation of BTEX for a period of 86days. The overall performance of a biofilter evaluated in terms of its elimination capacity by using 3-D mesh technique. Maximum removal efficiency was found more than 96.43% for all four compounds in each phase of experiments. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 60.89gm-3h-1 of the biofilter was obtained at inlet BTEX load of 63.14gm-3h-1. The follow-up of carbon dioxide concentration profile through the biofilter revealed that the mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced to the BTEX removed was approximately 2.2, which confirms complete degradation of BTEX. Moreover, BTEX concentration profile along the biofilter depth bed also determined by convection-diffusion reactor (CDR) model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rahul,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Mathur A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board | Balomajumder C.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Biofiltration of BTEX with corn-cob packing material have been performed for a period of 68days in five distinct phases. The overall performance of a biofilter has been evaluated in terms of its elimination capacity by using 3-D mesh techniques. Maximum removal efficiency was found more than 99.85% of all four compounds at an EBRT of 3.06min in phase I for an inlet BTEX concentration of 0.0970, 0.0978, 0.0971 and 0.0968gm-3, respectively. Nearly 100% removal achieved at average BTEX loadings of 20.257gm-3h-1 to biofilter. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 20.239gm-3h-1 of the biofilter was obtained at inlet BTEX load of 20.391gm-3h-1. Moreover, using convection-diffusion reaction (CDR) model for biofilter depth shows good agreement with the experimental values for benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene, but for o-xylene the model results deviated from the experimental. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rahul,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Mathur A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board | Bala S.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University | Majumder C.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Biofiltration of an air stream containing benzene has been studied in a laboratory biofilter packed with a mixture of compost, sugar cane bagasse and GAC. In this study, the overall performance of a biofilter has been evaluated in terms of its elimination capacity by using 3-D mesh techniques. The overall results indicate that the agreement between experimental data and estimated model predictions is excellent for benzene. The benzene concentration profiles along the depth of biofilter have also been determined using a convection-diffusion reactor (CDR) model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique. At low flow rates and low concentrations of benzene, the concentration profile throughout the biofilter shows good agreement with CDR model and it becomes more curved and resembles typical decay. Combined analysis of experimental results with CDR model and the CFD shows that the profile of benzene at low concentration becomes more curved and then linear at high concentration. The benzene profiles obtained by CFD are within 5% accuracy of experimental results. The CDR and CFD models are found to be able to predict concentration profiles preciously with depth under the experimental conditions. © 2012. Source


Saini R.,Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University | Singh P.,Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University | Awasthi B.B.,Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board | Kumar K.,Jawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew Delhi | Taneja A.,Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Unplanned urban and industrial growth and rise in population are the main factors that had led to air pollution problems. Surface ozone causes human health problems and environmental degradation and acts as a greenhouse gas. Surface ozone is the most significant key substance of photochemical smog. Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is described with the objective of understanding the prevailing processes pollutants phase interaction. Rigorous measurements of gaseous materials (surface O3, NO2, CO, and SO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) were carried out regularly during the summer season of 2012 at kerbsite of Agra to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The air mass trajectories have been calculated using the HYSPLIT 4 and FLEXTRA model. The maximum hourly levels of these pollutants exceeded 116.5 ppb for O3, 96.2 ppb for NO2, 16 ppb for SO2, 4.60 ppm for CO and 188 µg/m3 for PM2.5. There is obvious diurnal variation in the concentration of surface ozone which clearly follows the diurnal variation of atmospheric temperature. The joint application of principal component analysis and clustering techniques to data collected has led to the recognition of inherent relationships between variables that have been associated with governing processes related to surface O3 formation. The effect of wind on pollutants appears to be noteworthy. We also found that, the maximum average concentrations of SO2 and O3 occurred at humidity ≤30% pinpointing for strong vertical mixing. For CO, NO2 and PM2.5 the maximum average concentrations occurred at humidity below 40%. © Author(s) 2014. Source

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