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Kaplan W.A.,Boston University | Kaplan W.A.,World Health Organization | Wirtz V.J.,Boston University | Wirtz V.J.,World Health Organization | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive "switching" to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly promoted. © 2013 Kaplan et al. Source

Brabers A.E.M.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research | Van Dijk L.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research | Bouvy M.L.,Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical science UIPS | Bouvy M.L.,SIR Institute for Pharmacy Practice and Policy | De Jong J.D.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine consumers' confidence in their own, and also in other people's, over-the-counter (OTC) skills and to describe their attitude towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Moreover we examined the association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Mixed methods (postal and electronic) self-administered questionnaire. Participants: Members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel. Main outcome measures: Consumers' confidence in their own, and in other people's, OTC skills was examined. Confidence was measured by three questions regarding obtaining information on, choosing and using OTC medication. Consumers' attitudes towards availability were assessed using six safety profiles, by asking which channel consumers prefer for each profile. Results: The response rate was 68% (n=972). Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills (mean 3.74; 95% CI 3.69 to 3.79, on a 5-point Likert scale), but have less confidence in OTC skills of others (mean 2.92; 95% CI 2.88 to 2.96). Consumers are conservative in their attitudes towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Most consumers prefer painkillers to be available exclusively in pharmacies (41-71% per profile indicated pharmacy only). Moreover, there is an association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes (p=0.005; β=-0.114). Consumers who are more confident about their own OTC skills prefer OTC painkillers to be more generally available. Conclusions: Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills. However, they would prefer painkillers with safety profiles resembling those currently available OTC, to be available as OTC in pharmacies exclusively. Consumers' confidence in the OTC skills of others is more consistent with their attitudes towards availability of OTC painkillers. Until consumers themselves realise that they are also one of the others, they may overestimate their own OTC skills, which may entail health risks. Source

Stephens P.,IMS Health | Stephens P.,Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical science UIPS
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Vaccines offer the most cost-effective solution to prevent both communicable and non-communicable disease in poor countries. Published studies suggest that vaccine research is seeing declining success. This study updates the latest analyses on success rates in vaccine research, and examines the potential causes of decline and their ongoing impact. Success rates are shown to decline, the observed probability of market entry being just 1.8%, almost a fourfold decline over 5 years, but in the context of a very different product portfolio from that seen in earlier studies. DNA vaccines see high Phase I failures as expected, and therapeutic vaccines have lower success rates than prophylactic vaccines. The changing scientific challenge, lack of investment and lack of co-operation are highlighted as potential causes of the decline. Many issues have now been resolved, but co-operation between academia, regulators and industry remains a significant challenge, requiring links across new disciplines and technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Galarraga O.,Brown University | Galarraga O.,National Institute of Public Health INSP | Wirtz V.J.,National Institute of Public Health INSP | Wirtz V.J.,Boston University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Global HIV control funding falls short of need. To maximize health outcomes, it is critical that national governments sustain reasonable commitments, and that international donor assistance be distributed according to country needs and funding gaps. We develop a country classification framework in terms of actual versus expected national domestic funding, considering resource needs and donor financing. With UNAIDS and World Bank data, we examine domestic and donor HIV program funding in relation to need in 84 low- and middle-income countries. We estimate expected domestic contributions per person living with HIV (PLWH) as a function of per capita income, relative size of the health sector, and per capita foreign debt service. Countries are categorized according to levels of actual versus expected domestic contributions, and resource gap. Compared to national resource needs (UNAIDS Investment Framework), we identify imbalances among countries in actual versus expected domestic and donor contributions: 17 countries, with relatively high HIV prevalence and GNI per capita, have domestic funding below expected (median per PLWH $143 and $376, respectively), yet total available funding including from donors would exceed the need ($368 and $305, respectively) if domestic contribution equaled expected. Conversely, 27 countries have actual domestic funding above the expected (medians $294 and $149) but total (domestic+donor) funding does not meet estimated need ($685 and $1,173). Across the 84 countries, in 2009, estimated resource need totaled $10.3 billion, actual domestic contributions $5.1 billion and actual donor contributions $3.7 billion. If domestic contributions would increase to the expected level in countries where the actual was below expected, total domestic contributions would increase to $7.4 billion, turning a funding gap of $1.5 billion into a surplus of $0.8 billion. Even with imperfect funding and resource-need data, the proposed country classification could help improve coherence and efficiency in domestic and international allocations. © 2013 Galárraga et al. Source

Kwint H.F.,Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical science UIPS | Kwint H.F.,SIR Institute for Pharmacy Practice and Policy | Faber A.,SIR Institute for Pharmacy Practice and Policy | Gussekloo J.,Leiden University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

What is known and Objective: To determine to what extent patient interviews contribute to the identification of drug-related problems (DRPs) in home medication reviews, in terms of number, type and clinical relevance. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study within the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial. Patients were recruited from 10 Dutch community pharmacies. Patients were eligible if they were home-dwelling, aged 65 years and over and used five or more different drugs, including at least one cardiovascular or antidiabetic drug. The community pharmacist interviewed the patient at home about the medicines and identified potential DRPs in combination with medication and clinical records. This medication review was assessed and modified by an independent pharmacist reviewers' panel. Outcomes were the number and type of DRPs and recommendations and percentage of clinical relevant DRPs. Clinical relevance of DRPs was assessed by DRPs assigned a high priority, DRPs followed by recommendations for drug change and DRPs followed by implemented recommendations for drug change. Results: A total of 1565 potential DRPs and recommendations (10 per patient).were identified for 155 patients (median age, 76 years; 54% women). Fifty-eight per cent of all recommendations involved a drug change; 27% of all DRPs were identified during patient interviews and 74% from medication and clinical records. Compared to DRPs identified from patient medication and clinical records, DRPs identified during patient interviews were more frequently assigned a high priority (OR = 1·8 [1·4- 2·2]), were more frequently associated with recommendations for drug change (OR = 2·4 [1·9-3·1]) and were implemented recommendations for drug change (OR = 2·8 [2·1-3·7]). What is new and Conclusion: This study shows that more than a quarter of all DRPs were identified during patient interviews. DRPs identified during patient interviews were more frequently assigned a higher clinical relevance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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