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Sundar K.M.,University of Utah | Sundar K.M.,Utah Valley Regional Medical Center | Sires M.,Utah Valley Regional Medical Center
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Sepsis is the commonest cause of admission to medical ICUs across the world. Mortality from sepsis continues to be high. Besides shock and multi-organ dysfunction occurring following the intense inflammatory reaction to sepsis, complications arising from sepsis-related immunoparalysis contribute to the morbidity and mortality from sepsis. This review explores the basis for sepsis related immune dysfunction and discusses its clinical implications for the treating intensivist. Recent trends indicate that a significant proportion of septic patients succumb to the complications of secondary infections and chronic critical care illness from the initial bout of sepsis. Therefore care-givers in the ICU need to be aware of the impediments posed by sepsis-related immune dysfunction that can impair recovery in patients with sepsis and contribute to sepsis-related mortality.

Sundar K.M.,University of Utah | Nielsen D.,Utah Valley Regional Medical Center | Sperry P.,Brigham Young University
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2012

Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Measures to reduce the incidence of VAP have resulted in institutions reporting a zero or near-zero VAP rates. The implications of zero VAP rates are unclear. This study was done to compare outcomes between two intensive care units (ICU) with one of them reporting a zero VAP rate. Design, Setting and Patients: This study retrospectively compared VAP rates between two ICUs: Utah Valley Regional Medical Center (UVRMC) with 25 ICU beds and American Fork Hospital (AFH) with 9 ICU beds. Both facilities are under the same management and attended by a single group of intensivists. Both ICUs have similar nursing and respiratory staffing patterns. Both ICUs use the same intensive care program for reduction of VAP rates. ICU outcomes between AFH (reporting zero VAP rate) and UVRMC (VAP rate of 2.41/1000 ventilator days) were compared for the years 2007-2008. Measurements and Main Results: UVRMC VAP rates during 2007 and 2008 were 2.31/1000 ventilator days and 2.5/1000 ventilator days respectively compared to a zero VAP rate at AFH. The total days of ventilation, mean days of ventilation per patient and mean duration of ICU stay per patient was higher in the UVRMC group as compared to AFH ICU group. There was no significant difference in mean age and APACHE II score between ICU patients at UVRMC and AFH. There was no statistical difference in rates of VAP and mortality between UVRMC and AFH. Conclusions: During comparisons of VAP rate between institutions, a zero VAP rate needs to be considered in the context of overall ventilator days, mean durations of ventilator stay and ICU mortality. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Pak H.-N.,Yonsei University | Oh Y.S.,Catholic University of Korea | Lim H.E.,Korea University | Kim Y.-H.,Korea University | And 2 more authors.
Heart Rhythm | Year: 2011

Background Left lateral mitral isthmus (LLMI) ablation achieves a low percentage of bidirectional conduction block in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether linear ablation through the lowest voltage area on the left atrial anterior wall (LAAW) can lead to better clinical outcomes compared to LLMI ablation. Methods We obtained high-density three-dimensional (3D) voltage mapping (CARTO) of the LA in 29 patients with persistent AF and determined the area of low voltage. In the multicenter prospective study, clinical outcomes of LAAW (n = 100) and LLMI ablations (n = 100) were compared in patients with persistent AF (79.4% male, 59.4 ± 10.6 years). Results (1) The low-voltage area consistently existed on LAAW and had a correlation with the LAaorta contact area (R = 0.921, P <.0001). Mean voltage of LAAW was significantly lower than that of LLMI (P <.0001). (2) The length of LAAW ablation (37.9 ± 3.4 mm vs 26.6 ± 3.2 mm, P <.0001) was longer, but achievement of bidirectional block was higher (68.0% vs 32.0%, P = .0001) than in LLMI ablation. Mean duration of LAAW and LLMI ablations was 19.3 ± 2.9 minutes and 18.2 ± 3.7 minutes, respectively (P = .086). (3) During follow-up of 23.3 ± 7.4 months, the recurrence rate of AF after LAAW ablation (26.0%) was significantly lower than that of LLMI ablation (41.0%, P = .021) after a single procedure. Conclusion The voltage map is useful for guiding linear ablation in persistent AF patients. LAAW is the most frequent low-voltage area around the mitral annulus, and linear ablation along LAAW results in a better clinical outcome with a higher rate of bidirectional conduction block compared to LLMI ablation. © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

Christensen M.J.,Brigham Young University | Quiner T.E.,Brigham Young University | Nakken H.L.,Brigham Young University | Lephart E.D.,Brigham Young University | And 2 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND High dietary intake of soy or selenium (Se) is associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer. Soy constituents and various chemical forms of Se have each been shown to downregulate expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and AR-regulated genes in the prostate. We hypothesized that downregulation of AR and AR-regulated genes by the combination of these dietary components would inhibit tumorigenesis in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse. METHODS Male mice were exposed from conception to stock diets high or low in soy, with or without a supplement of Se-methylseleno-L-cysteine (MSC) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Mice were sacrificed at 18 weeks. Prostate histopathology, urogenital tract (UGT) weight, hepatic activity of androgen-metabolizing enzymes, and expression of AR, AR-regulated, and AR-associated FOX family genes, in the dorsolateral prostate were examined. RESULTS High soy intake decreased activity of hepatic aromatase and 5α-reductase, expression of AR, AR-regulated genes, FOXA1, UGT weight, and tumor progression, and upregulated protective FOXO3. Supplemental MSC upregulated AKR1C14, which reduces 5α-dihydrotestosterone. CONCLUSIONS Soy is an effective pleiotropic dietary agent for prevention of prostate cancer. The finding of effects of soy on FOX family gene expression in animals is novel. Combination effects of supplemental MSC may depend upon the soy content of the basal diet to which it is added. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yoder B.A.,University of Utah | Stoddard R.A.,Utah Valley Regional Medical Center | Li M.,Hebei Provincial Childrens Hospital | King J.,University of Utah | And 2 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) is commonly used as a noninvasive mode of respiratory support in the NICU. The safety and efficacy of HHHFNC have not been compared with other modes of noninvasive support in large randomized trials. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for noninvasive respiratory support in the NICU. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, unblinded noncrossover trial in 432 infants ranging from 28 to 42 weeks' gestational age with planned nCPAP support, as either primary therapy or postextubation. The primary outcome was defined as a need for intubation within 72 hours of applied noninvasive therapy. RESULTS: There was no difference in early failure for HHHFNC (23/212 [10.8%]) versus nCPAP (18/220 [8.2%]; P =.344), subsequent need for any intubation (32/212 [15.1%] vs 25/220 [11.4%]; P =.252), or in any of several adverse outcomes analyzed, including air leak. HHHFNC infants remained on the study mode significantly longer than nCPAP infants (median: 4 vs 2 days, respectively; P <.01), but there were no differences between study groups for days on supplemental oxygen (median: 10 vs 8 days), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (20% vs 16%), or discharge from the hospital on oxygen (19% vs 18%). CONCLUSIONS: Among infants ≥28 weeks' gestational age, HHHFNC appears to have similar ef ficacy and safety to nCPAP when applied immediately postextubation or early as initial noninvasive support for respiratory dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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