Utah Public Health Laboratory

Taylorsville, UT, United States

Utah Public Health Laboratory

Taylorsville, UT, United States

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Fowlkes A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Steffens A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Temte J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Lonardo S.D.,Gotham Center | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Since the introduction of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) to the USA in 2009, the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project has monitored the burden of influenza in the outpatient setting through population-based surveillance. Methods: From Oct 1, 2009, to July 31, 2013, outpatient clinics representing 13 health jurisdictions in the USA reported counts of influenza-like illness (fever including cough or sore throat) and all patient visits by age. During four years, staff at 104 unique clinics (range 35-64 per year) with a combined median population of 368 559 (IQR 352 595-428 286) attended 35 663 patients with influenza-like illness and collected 13 925 respiratory specimens. Clinical data and a respiratory specimen for influenza testing by RT-PCR were collected from the first ten patients presenting with influenza-like illness each week. We calculated the incidence of visits for influenza-like illness using the size of the patient population, and the incidence attributable to influenza was extrapolated from the proportion of patients with positive tests each week. Findings: The site-median peak percentage of specimens positive for influenza ranged from 58·3% to 77·8%. Children aged 2 to 17 years had the highest incidence of influenza-associated visits (range 4·2-28·0 per 1000 people by year), and adults older than 65 years had the lowest (range 0·5-3·5 per 1000 population). Influenza A H3N2, pandemic H1N1, and influenza B equally co-circulated in the first post-pandemic season, whereas H3N2 predominated for the next two seasons. Of patients for whom data was available, influenza vaccination was reported in 3289 (28·7%) of 11 459 patients with influenza-like illness, and antivirals were prescribed to 1644 (13·8%) of 11 953 patients. Interpretation: Influenza incidence varied with age groups and by season after the pandemic of 2009 influenza A H1N1. High levels of influenza virus circulation, especially in young children, emphasise the need for additional efforts to increase the uptake of influenza vaccines and antivirals. Funding: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Dicataldo G.,University of Utah | Hayes D.F.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Miller T.G.,The Water Council | Scanlan L.,Utah Public Health Laboratory
Environmental Engineering Science | Year: 2010

Potential ecological risks of selenium (Se) to migratory birds in wetlands of the Great Salt Lake have not been previously studied. Monitoring results show that total Se concentrations coming from the Jordan River into the Ambassador Duck Club wetland ponds approached 2.0 μg L-1. Bioconcentration of Se occurred in all nine ponds of the wetland system of Ambassador Duck Club. Se bioconcentration factors were over 1,700 L kg-1 in plant tissue and 650 L kg-1 in microinvertebrate tissue above observed Se concentrations in surface water. Se concentration in plant tissue and sediments showed strong linear correlations (r = 0.99 and r = 0.93, respectively) to dissolved Se concentration, whereas macroinvertebrate tissue did not show a correlation with dissolved Se. In addition, plant tissue showed a strong correlation (r = 0.96) to selenate but no correlation to organic-selenide. Selenate was the major species of dissolved Se entering the wetland system and decreased significantly through the wetland ponds as Se speciation shifted to dissolved organic-selenide forms. Substantial decreases in dissolved and total Se concentrations (56% and 49%, respectively) occurred between the first and the seventh of nine ponds (total retention time of 25 to 465 h) of the wetland system. Removal of Se from the water column was caused by Se accumulation in plants, sorption, and sedimentation of Se with organic and inorganic matter, and microbial transformation to volatile Se forms. From the observed concentrations of Se in water, sediment, and biota, and by comparison to other studies in similar environments, we conclude that these wetlands do not currently pose an Se hazard to migratory birds. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Association of Public Health Laboratories, Arup, Jefferson Lab and Utah Public Health Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2016

INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used. Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of ARUP Laboratories and Melissa Miller of the University of North Carolina will explain the advantages of CIDTs for enteric pathogens and discuss practical solutions for clinical microbiology laboratories to address these public health needs.


PubMed | Washington State Public Health Laboratories, Association of Public Health Laboratories, Public-i and Utah Public Health Laboratory
Type: | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2016

The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDCs National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.


Tanner W.D.,University of Utah | Tanner W.D.,Utah Public Health Laboratory | VanDerslice J.A.,University of Utah | Toor D.,Amity University | And 4 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

In this study, a fluorogenic heterotrophic plate count test for drinking water was modified in order to detect the presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial agents and concentrations were selected based on recoveries of known carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-susceptible strains inoculated into simulated samples. The modified method was field-tested on 19 drinking water samples from the New Delhi, India distribution system. Samples exhibiting fluorescence indicated bacterial growth in the presence of the supplemented antimicrobial agents, and organisms from these samples were cultured. Twenty-one Gram-negative isolates were identified from nine of the 19 samples and the meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Ultimately, eight carbapenem-resistant organisms were isolated from five sampling sites within the New Delhi water distribution system. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Tanner W.D.,University of Utah | VanDerslice J.A.,University of Utah | Toor D.,Amity University | Benson L.S.,University of Utah | And 3 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

In this study, a fluorogenic heterotrophic plate count test for drinking water was modified in order to detect the presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial agents and concentrations were selected based on recoveries of known carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-susceptible strains inoculated into simulated samples. The modified method was field-tested on 19 drinking water samples from the New Delhi, India distribution system. Samples exhibiting fluorescence indicated bacterial growth in the presence of the supplemented antimicrobial agents, and organisms from these samples were cultured. Twenty-one Gram-negative isolates were identified from nine of the 19 samples and the meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Ultimately, eight carbapenem-resistant organisms were isolated from five sampling sites within the New Delhi water distribution system. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | Amity University, University of Utah and Utah Public Health Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Systematic and applied microbiology | Year: 2015

In this study, a fluorogenic heterotrophic plate count test for drinking water was modified in order to detect the presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial agents and concentrations were selected based on recoveries of known carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-susceptible strains inoculated into simulated samples. The modified method was field-tested on 19 drinking water samples from the New Delhi, India distribution system. Samples exhibiting fluorescence indicated bacterial growth in the presence of the supplemented antimicrobial agents, and organisms from these samples were cultured. Twenty-one Gram-negative isolates were identified from nine of the 19 samples and the meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Ultimately, eight carbapenem-resistant organisms were isolated from five sampling sites within the New Delhi water distribution system.

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