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Salt Lake City, UT, United States

The Utah Geological Survey is based in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. It also has an office in Cedar City, Utah.It is a division of the Utah Department of Natural Resources and is an applied scientific agency, which creates, interprets, and provides information about Utah's geological environment, resources and hazards, in order to promote safe, beneficial, and wise land usage.Its departments and programs are: Editorial Services, Geologic Hazards Program, Energy & Minerals Program, Geologic Information and Outreach Program, Geologic Mapping Program, Ground Water and Paleontology Program, and the State Energy Program.The UGS has worked on countless projects in the state, including statewide Geologic hazards maps, oil shale assessment, Great Salt Lake studies, fault trenching, and the Snake Valley/West Desert Groundwater Monitoring Well Project. In addition, recent research and general geologic information is given in teacher-friendly formats for anyone to use. Wikipedia.

Welhan J.,Idaho State University | Gwynn M.,Utah Geological Survey
Transactions - Geothermal Resources Council | Year: 2014

A synthesis of bottom-hole temperature (BHT) and drill stem test (DST) data compiled for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) in the vicinity of southeast Idaho's Blackfoot volcanic field (B VF) was used to calculate heat flow for 31 oil and gas exploration wells drilled in the Idaho thrust belt (ITB). The temperature data and heat flow estimates define a previously unrecognized high- Temperature geothermal prospect in Jurassic and Triassic sedimentary rocks adjacent to the BVF at depths of 3-4 km, approximately 25-50 km north of the late Quaternary (58 ka) China Hat rhyolite domes of the BVF. The rhyolite magma, at a depth of 12-14 km, and/or its associated parent mafic magma is believed to be the heat source responsible for driving hydrothermal fluids and heat into the ITB. Several BHT correction methods were tested against DST data and an aggregate average of the best methods was computed and applied to all BHT data. Formation thermal conductivities were also evaluated to calculate more accurate heat flow. An area greater than 150 km2 has heat flow greater than 120 mW/m2 and temperatures in excess of 150°C at 3 km. Another localized area defined by a single well also exhibits anomalously high heat flow and subsurface temperatures (116 mW/m2 and 170°C at 3.5 km, respectively). The major ion chemistry of hot brines and saline formation fluids indicates they are the product of dissolution of evaporite beds in the Jurassic Preuss Sandstone in response to circulating hydrothermal fluids. Their spatial occurrence relative to salt-bearing strata suggests they may play a role in redistributing and storing heat, which could have implications for how these hot sedimentary reservoirs are developed. Copyright © (2014) by the Geothermal Resources Council. Source

Allis R.,Utah Geological Survey | Moore J.,University of Utah
Transactions - Geothermal Resources Council | Year: 2014

Petroleum exploration wells confirm that the high permeability and high flow rates needed from geothermal production supporting large-scale power development can be found in deep stratigraphic reservoirs (> 3 km depth). Data from drilling in the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin of western U.S. show carbonate reservoirs at depths of 3 - 5 km have slightly better average permeability than siliciclastic reservoirs (75 versus 30 mDarcies). These values are sufficient for high-flow-rate geothermal production wells. Deep wells in two Rocky Mountain basins also show that carbonate reservoirs, possibly dolomitic, can preserve high permeability when the temperatures are 220 - 240°C at more than 5 km depth. There may be a relationship between widespread, good stratigraphic permeability, and reservoirs being at hydrostatic pressure. If true, this may imply that over-pressure is a negative indicator for a large geothermal reservoir. Conventional oil well production flow rates are usually significantly lower than that required for geothermal power production, but this is due to oil viscosity being at least ten times higher than hot water, rather than low permeability reservoirs. The target conditions for stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs are temperatures of 175 - 200°C and depths of 3 - 4 km. These conditions can be found within basins where the heat flow is about 90 mW/m2, the average heat flow for the Great Basin. The eastern Great Basin is underlain by a lower Paleozoic carbonate section that ranges up to 3 km in thickness and is known to have good permeability. Numerous reservoir targets where temperatures are 175 - 200°C at depths of 3 - 4 km, and good stratigraphic permeability is known or inferred have been identified in the Great Basin. The large areas of these reservoirs 102 to 103 km2) can each support power plants of more than 100 MWe. Copyright © (2014) by the Geothermal Resources Council. Source

McDonald A.T.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | McDonald A.T.,University of Pennsylvania | Kirkland J.I.,Utah Geological Survey
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010

MSM P4166, a specimen from the Moreno Hill Formation (middle Turonian) of New Mexico, is described as the holotype of a new genus and species of hadrosauroid dinosaur. Jeyawati rugoculus, gen. et sp. nov., is diagnosed by a rugose texture that covers the entire lateral surface of the postorbital and the presence of a large neurovascular foramen at the base of the jugal process of the postorbital, as well as a unique combination of characters. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis reveals that Jeyawati is a basal hadrosauroid more derived than Probactrosaurus, Eolambia, and Protohadros, but more basal than Shuangmiaosaurus, Bactrosaurus, and Telmatosaurus. Assessment of ontogenetic criteria indicates that MSM P4166 represents a subadult or adult individual. Even with the recognition of Jeyawati, Late Cretaceous hadrosauroid biogeography remains somewhat ambiguous because of the lack of material from the late Turonianearly Santonian in western North America. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Source

Quick J.C.,Utah Geological Survey
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Gilmore T.E.,North Carolina State University | Genereux D.P.,Earth and Atmospheric SciencesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleigh | Solder J.E.,Utah Geological Survey
Water Resources Research | Year: 2016

We measured groundwater apparent age (τ) and seepage rate (v) in a sandy streambed using point-scale sampling and seepage blankets (a novel seepage meter). We found very similar MTT estimates from streambed point sampling in a 58 m reach (29 years) and a 2.5 km reach (31 years). The TTD for groundwater discharging to the stream was best fit by a gamma distribution model and was very similar for streambed point sampling in both reaches. Between adjacent point-scale and seepage blanket samples, water from the seepage blankets was generally younger, largely because blanket samples contained a fraction of "young" stream water. Correcting blanket data for the stream water fraction brought τ estimates for most blanket samples closer to those for adjacent point samples. The MTT estimates from corrected blanket data were in good agreement with those from sampling streambed points adjacent to the blankets. Collectively, agreement among age-dating tracers, general accord between tracer data and piston-flow model curves, and large groundwater age gradients in the streambed, suggested that the piston flow apparent ages were reasonable estimates of the groundwater transit times for most samples. Overall, our results from two field campaigns suggest that groundwater collected in the streambed can provide reasonable estimates of apparent age of groundwater discharge, and that MTT can be determined from different age-dating tracers and by sampling with different groundwater collection devices. Coupled streambed point measurements of groundwater age and groundwater seepage rate represent a novel, reproducible, and effective approach to estimating aquifer TTD and MTT. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. Source

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