Piedecuesta, Colombia
Piedecuesta, Colombia

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Vargas D.A.,Corporation NATFRAC | Calderon Z.H.,Industrial University of Santander | Mateus D.C.,Ecopetrol SA | Corzo R.,Ecopetrol SA | Acevedo O.J.,UT PEXLAB
ISRM Conference on Rock Mechanics for Natural Resources and Infrastructure, SBMR 2014 | Year: 2014

Pore pressure is one of the most critical variables on the geomechanical model design, and upon this variable depends largely the successful drilling of oil wells. This pressure is calculated conventionally considering the mechanical stresses, essentially the disequilibrium for compaction, using empirical correlations developed from information taken mainly from the Gulf of Mexico. The use of these equations, does not reflect real situations most of the time, giving pore pressure values inferior to the formation pressures, which may complicate the drilling operations, especially on exploratory wells, increasing the nonproductive times (NPT). The main objective of this investigation is to implement a mathematical model which includes the most common overpressure causes documented in literature, and which allow to quantify the effects of: the under compaction and the thermal stresses due to the water expansion, the kerogen cracking and the oil in shale formations. In order to include the effect of the water expansion, the geothermal gradient and a sedimentation history of a Colombian basin were taken into account. For the hydrocarbons generation, an organic material maturation model was applied, to determine the oil and gas fraction generated. This model was applied to a Colombian basin and providing as a result, a pressure profile quantifying the effect of each mechanism mentioned above. The results obtained with the model shows coherence with the events reported on the study area wells. Similarly, it could be evidenced that, despite the compaction is the main cause of overpressure in depths no deeper than 3000 meters, at greater depths, the thermal stresses contribution may be up to 14% of the total overpressure. For this reason, the proposed model allows to decrease the uncertainty on the pore pressure model. Additionally, the pressure model was simulated with the software PetroMod with the objective of including the boundary conditions, along with the horizontal and vertical flow conditions across the permeable layer, increasing the representativeness of the pore pressure model. © CBMR/ABMS and ISRM, 2014.

Del Pilar Pachon-Contreras Z.,Ecopetrol SA | Rojas-Ruiz F.-A.,UT Pexlab | Rondon-Anton M.-J.,UT Pexlab | Vidal-Prada J.-C.,UT Pexlab | Pulido-Solano F.-A.,UT Pexlab
CTyF - Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro | Year: 2014

An efficient method for preparing petroleum sulfonates is described in this article. Petroleum sulfonates were prepared from five different refinery cuts and characterized by infrarred and ultra-violet spectroscopy. Their hydrophilic-lipophilic relative afinity was assessed by performing phase behavior scans. The prepared surfactants were evaluated in formulations for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (CEOR), showing that, under the evaluation conditions, the solubilization ratios increase with the structural similarity between the crude oil and the surfactant molecules. It was confirmed that, when used as secondary surfactants, the petroleum sulfonates here prepared allow to achieve relatively high solubilization parameters. © 2014, Ecopetrol S.A. All rights reserved.

Duarte Castro M.T.,UT PEXLAB | Gomez Moncada R.A.,Ecopetrol SA | Agudelo Zambrano W.M.,Ecopetrol SA | Camacho Almeyda G.D.,Ecopetrol SA
Borehole Geophysics Workshop II - 3D VSP: Benefits, Challenges and Potential | Year: 2013

In order to monitoring the combustion in-situ in a field, we decide to use the 3D-VSP technique such that it could be repeated several times during the field development. The selection was based on (1) area target extension, (2) monitoring wells distribution, (3) thickness target affected by air injection and (4) vertical and horizontal resolution required. The goal of this work is select the parameters which allow both, right target illumination and repeatability. The 3D-VSP design strategy was analyzing the sensibility of the acquisition parameter and performs geophysical modeling by ray tracing. During sensibility analysis the source distribution (geometry) and the number and depth levels were perturbed. The depth level is a critical parameter for repeatability; because of the possible damage induced by combustion to the formation. Additionally, ray tracing was performed on the structural model to quantify the optimal source distribution and the optimal source density. Variability of parameters was evaluated as a function of the homogeneity coverage. Finally the optimized acquisition geometry includes results from sensibility analysis and geophysical modeling processes.

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