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Point of Rocks, MD, United States
Point of Rocks, MD, United States

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Misra R.,Texas A&M University | Patel T.,USUHS | Kotha P.,University of California at San Diego | Raji A.,Harvard University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2010

Background: Although studies of immigrant Asian Indians in other countries show high rates of diabetes (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), no randomized, population-based studies of this rapidly growing ethnic group exist in the US. Methods: The sample comprised 1038 randomly selected Asian Indian immigrants, aged 18 years and older at seven US sites. Prevalence of diabetes and MetS (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted means) was estimated and ANOVA was used to calculate gender and group differences (normoglycemia/impaired fasting glucose/diabetes) for CVD risk factors. Results: The mean age was 48.2 years. The majority of respondents were male, married, educated, and with some form of health insurance. Prevalence of diabetes was 17.4%, and 33% of the respondents had prediabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors, especially high levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein, and low levels of HDL cholesterol, were also prevalent; elevated lipoprotein(a) was not observed. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 26.9% by the original NCEP/ATP III criteria, 32.7% by the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria, and 38.2% by the IDF criteria. The MetS rates for women, but not for men, increased with age using all three criteria. There was a progressive worsening of all metabolic parameters as individuals progressed from normal to IFG to diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of diabetes and MetS among US Asian Indians are higher than reported in earlier, nonrandomized, smaller surveys. These data provide a firm basis for future mechanistic and interventional studies.


Tinelli A.,Vito Fazzi Hospital | Mettler L.,University of Kiel | Malvasi A.,Santa Maria Hospital | Hurst B.,Assisted Reproduction Center | And 5 more authors.
Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies | Year: 2014

Background: Myomectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in gynecology and has implications on fertility and subsequent pregnancies. We compared the impact of surgical approach on blood loss during laparoscopic and abdominal intracapsular myomectomy. Material and methods: The evaluation comprised 124 fertile women with subserous or intramural myomas: 66 patients treated by laparoscopy and 58 patients treated by laparotomy. The intracapsular myoma enucleation technique was similar for both approaches. All procedures were analyzed for the evaluation of intra-and post-surgical blood loss and intra-and short-term post-operative surgical outcomes. Results: The operating time for laparoscopic intracapsular myomectomy was longer (95 ± 7.2 min vs. 63 ± 5.6, p < 0.0001), but was associated with reduced intra-(65 ± ml vs. 105 ± 5, p < 0.0001) and post-surgical blood loss (30 ± 5 vs. 60 ± 5 ml, p < 0.0001), as well as diminished application of pain relief medication (8 patients vs. 17, p < 0.05), compared to open intracapsular myomectomy. Conclusions: The surgical approach did not substantially affect the technique of intracapsular myomectomy; however, laparoscopy significantly reduced intra-and postoperative blood loss and resulted in better short-term outcomes than after open surgery. Our results underscore the advantages of trying to reduce the rate of laparotomic myomectomy, one of the leading surgical interventions associated with infertility and sterility. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Kortepeter M.G.,USUHS | Seaworth B.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler | Tasker S.A.,Pharmaceutical Product Development Inc. | Burgess T.H.,Naval Medical Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

With the recent emphasis on funding and training opportunities for global health and humanitarian aid and the increased interest in the field, many health care workers and medical researchers are traveling from resource-replete to resource-limited settings. This type of travel brings unique disease risks not routinely considered for the business or vacationing traveler. This review provides practical advice for this special population of travelers, targeted to specific health care-related risks (needlestick, hemorrhagic fever viruses, severe viral respiratory disease, and tuberculosis), with suggestions for risk mitigation. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Dr. Bradley Ringeisen, head of the Bioenergy and Biofabrication Section at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is awarded the prestigious Laboratory Scientist of the Quarter award for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015. The award honors Ringeisen for extraordinary service to the Department of Defense (DoD) for his distinguished accomplishments in the development and expansion of the applications of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting using the Navy's patented biological laser printer, or BioLP. "Dr. Ringeisen's ingenuity and scientific insight have resulted in numerous breakthroughs that demonstrate biofabrication and tissue engineering capabilities critical to advancing Navy science and technology interest," said Dr. John Montgomery, Director of Research at NRL. "The future goals of this program are to facilitate delivery of complex organs and anatomical structures that retain heterogeneity and functionality across the scale of human tissue." Ringeisen is an internationally recognized leader and pioneer of live cell and organ printing. As a direct result of his leadership and innovative development, Ringeisen's laboratories at the NRL have been selected to be the focal point for a Defense Health Program (DHP) supported 3D Bioprinting and Fabrication Consortium - a multi-user facility harboring multiple, diverse bioprinting technologies that will serve as a validation center for DoD-funded bioprinting programs important to soldier health, such as, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss, and eye and cornea surgery. By reaching out to the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) to bridge the NRL bioprinting technology with DoD biomedical researchers and clinicians, Ringeisen established a consortium of industry, academic, government, and military researchers within a single laboratory facility that supports multiple programs. "Through establishment of this consortium the possibility exists for providing shared access and discovery that will keep DoD and DHP goals in sight and preclude redundancy in bioprinting programs," Montgomery adds. "For these reasons, and the most recent critical advancements in extending the possibility for the culturing of environmental microorganisms, of what had previously been deemed unculturable, I strongly support the DoD's choice of Ringeisen for 'Scientist of the Quarter.'" Hired by NRL as a research chemist in 2002, Ringeisen's distinguished career has focused primarily on the development and improvement of laser-based 2D and 3D printing techniques for biofabrication and tissue engineering applications. His research has also involved the use of a variety of novel laser-based processing tools to deposit patterns and 3D structures of biological materials. Ringeisen's ingenuity and scientific insight have resulted in numerous breakthroughs that include demonstrated printing of microvasculature on polymer/gel biopaper; 3D nerve conduits to potentially help aid repair of chronic spinal cord injuries; 3D mammalian cell patterns; and printing the world's first viable bacterial colony. The biofabrication and tissue engineering capabilities demonstrated by Ringeisen have been instrumental in advancing Navy S&T interests, such as, on-chip screening of new medical countermeasures for efficacy and toxicity; biomarker discovery to better identify biothreat infection; and regenerative medicine applications such as artificial 3D organs and tissue printing for improved warfighter health and survivability. In 2015, Ringeisen was named an adjunct assistant professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences at USU, supporting his desire to further bridge NRL 3D bioprinting innovations and technology developments with clinical applications. Also in 2015, he became the first scientist to apply bioprinting to solid phase environmental samples including soil and sediment for the purpose of culturing undiscovered and uncultured microorganisms. An accomplished publisher of more than 60 research manuscripts, Ringeisen is also a named inventor on 12 NRL patents, eight of which are associated with bioprinting. Two of these patents are specific to BioLP - a laser direct write tool for creating 2D and 3D patterns of almost any biomaterial, including living cells (bacterial, mammalian), solid-phase environmental samples (soil, sediment), hydrogels and biomolecules - licensed for human tissue microdissection applications. Ringeisen has a Bachelor of Science in chemistry from Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (1994). He attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin-Madison studying gas scattering and reactivity of liquid surfaces, then continued on to receive his Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 2000. Ringeisen was hired at NRL after completing his two-year postdoctoral research associateship in the Materials Division, researching laser deposition of biomaterials. Complementing Ringeisen's research efforts, he has received funding from the Department of Energy (DoE), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Advanced Research Program Agency (DARPA), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and NRL. His section has collaborated with nationally recognized universities and research institutions such as Harvard University, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Rutgers University, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, USUHS, and the United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). Publications by Ringeisen and his section at NRL have appeared in prominent journals such as Nature Communications, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Energy and Environmental Science, NanoLetters and the Material Research Society Bulletin. About the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory provides the advanced scientific capabilities required to bolster our country's position of global naval leadership. The Laboratory, with a total complement of approximately 2,500 personnel, is located in southwest Washington, D.C., with other major sites at the Stennis Space Center, Miss., and Monterey, Calif. NRL has served the Navy and the nation for over 90 years and continues to advance research further than you can imagine. For more information, visit the NRL website or join the conversation on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.


Chai N.C.,Johns Hopkins University | Scher A.I.,USUHS | Moghekar A.,Johns Hopkins University | Bond D.S.,Brown Alpert Medical School | Peterlin B.L.,Johns Hopkins University
Headache | Year: 2014

Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine- obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. © 2014 American Headache Society.


Ha C.T.,USUHS | Wu J.A.,USUHS | Irmak S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Lisboa F.A.,USUHS | And 4 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2010

Previous studies suggest that human pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoproteins (PSGs) play immunomodulatory roles during pregnancy; however, other possible functions of PSGs have yet to be explored. We have observed that PSGs induce transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), which among its other diverse functions inhibits T-cell function and has proangiogenic properties. The present study investigates a potential role for PSG1, the most abundant PSG in maternal serum, as a possible inducer of proangiogenic growth factors known to play an important role in establishment of the vasculature at the maternal-fetal interface. To this end, we measured TGFB1, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) A and C, and placental growth factor (PGF) protein levels in several cell types after PSG1 treatment. In addition, tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate a possible direct interaction between PSG1 and endothelial cells. PSG1 induced up-regulation of both TGFB1 and VEGFA in human monocytes, macrophages, and two human extravillous trophoblast cell lines. We did not observe induction of VEGFC or PGF by PSG1 in any of the cells tested. PSG1 treatment resulted in endothelial tube formation in the presence and absence of VEGFA. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to map the essential regions within the N-domain of PSG1 required for functional activity. We found that the aspartic acid at position 95, previously believed to be required for binding of PSGs to cells, is not required for PSG1 activity but that the amino acids implicated in the formation of a salt bridge within the N-domain are essential for PSG1 function. © 2010 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


Zhang J.,USUHS | Zhuang L.,USUHS | Zhuang L.,University of Bern | Lee Y.,USUHS | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2010

Cytoplasmic dynein in filamentous fungi accumulates at microtubule plus-ends near the hyphal tip, which is important for minus-end-directed transport of early endosomes. It was hypothesized that dynein is switched on at the plus-end by cargo association. Here, we show in Aspergillus nidulans that kinesin-1-dependent plus-end localization is not a prerequisite for dynein ATPase activation. First, the Walker A and Walker B mutations in the dynein heavy chain AAA1 domain implicated in blocking different steps of the ATPase cycle cause different effects on dynein localization to microtubules, arguing against the suggestion that ATPase is inactive before arriving at the plus-end. Second, dynein from ΔkinA (kinesin 1) mutant cells has normal ATPase activity despite the absence of dynein plus-end accumulation. In ΔkinA hyphae, dynein localizes along microtubules and does not colocalize with abnormally accumulated early endosomes at the hyphal tip. This is in contrast to the colocalization of dynein and early endosomes in the absence of NUDF/LIS1. However, the Walker B mutation allows dynein to colocalize with the hyphal-tip-accumulated early endosomes in the ΔkinA background. We suggest that the normal ability of dyenin to interact with microtubules as an active minus-end-directed motor demands kinesin-1-mediated plus-end accumulation for effective interactions with early endosomes.


Dong T.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Artino A.R.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Durning S.J.,USUHS | Denton G.D.,USUHS
Medical Education | Year: 2012

Objectives This study was conducted to assess the associations between several clerkship process measures and students' clinical and examination performance in an internal medicine clerkship. Methods We collected data from the internal medicine clerkship at one institution over a 3-year period (classes of 2010-2012; n=507) and conducted correlation and multiple regression analyses. We examined the associations between clerkship process measures (student-reported number of patients evaluated, percentage of core problems encountered, total number of core problems encountered, total number of clinics attended) and four clerkship outcomes (clinical points [a weighted summation of a student's clinical grade recommendations], ambulatory clinical points [the out-patient portion of clinical points], examination points [a weighted summation of scores on three clerkship examinations], and National Board of Medical Examiners examination score). Results After controlling for pre-clerkship ability and gender, percentage of core problems was significantly associated with ambulatory clinical points (b=3.84, total model R 2=0.14). Further, number of patients evaluated was significantly associated with clinical points (b=0.19, total model R 2=0.22), but only for students who undertook first-quarter clerkships, who reported higher numbers of patients. Conclusions Notwithstanding a few positive (but small) associations, the results from this study suggest that clinical exposure is, at best, weakly associated with internal medicine clerkship performance. Discuss ideas arising from this article at '' © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.


Sellitti D.F.,USUHS | Doi S.Q.,USUHS
MicroRNA (Shāriqah, United Arab Emirates) | Year: 2015

New therapies based on the targeting of signal pathways (such as VHL/HIF-1) common to most renal cell carcinomas (RCC), have greatly improved the outlook for sufferers of this disease. Given the growing reputation of many microRNAs (miRNAs) as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes, the measurement and manipulation of these small nucleotides in RCC patients may provide yet another valuable advance in renal cancer diagnosis and treatment. The present review summarizes the current literature on the role of microRNAs in RCC development and progression emphasizing the interaction of specific miRNAs with both oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways of particular importance in renal cancer.


Eberly M.D.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Gorman G.H.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Eide M.B.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Olsen C.H.,USUHS | Rajnik M.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Vaccine | Year: 2011

We conducted a retrospective review of all U.S. military dependents less than 5 years old hospitalized with rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis from July 2003 to June 2009. The two post-vaccine seasons showed a significant reduction of 62.4% (95% CI, 58.6-65.8, P< 0.001) in rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization rate compared to the three pre-vaccine seasons. Infants less than 12 months old showed the greatest reduction in incidence at 75.3%. A substantial decrease was also seen in unvaccinated children as well. Vaccine efficacy against hospitalization was 86.0% (95% CI, 77.7-91.3) after just a single dose. The overwhelming majority of children hospitalized for rotavirus since the introduction of the vaccine (ranging from 91.8 to 100% per season) had not received any of the rotavirus vaccine series. © 2010.

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