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Pridal A.,Ustav zoologie | Vesely P.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

Mohelno serpentine steppe (Mohelenska hadcova step) is a unique natural habitat of European importance. Since its last apidologic proper survey passed about 70 years. The objective of this work was to summarize the results of the apidological survey performed in the national nature reserve Mohelno Serpentine Steppe in a period of 2010-2011, characterize current changes in the composition of bee populations and propose recommendations for the management of this nature reserve. The survey was performed within 20 days and includes a total of 91 hours of observations in the field with exact records of survey localization and weather. A total of 2705 bee individuals were caught using an insect net and examined. 71 to 276 bee individuals were identified on individual days of monitoring. The bee density varied in a range of 18.4-87.1 bees per hour of the pure time of sampling. A total of 176 bee species were identified. 115 bee species from the original list of 232 bee species were confirmed by this survey (50 %). Species that were not confirmed could disappear as a result of changes which have occurred in the Steppe biotope over the past 40 years or their disappearance is generally associated with changes in the population of a particular species in Moravia. The disappearance of 17 % of unconfirmed species (20 species) from the Steppe is very likely to occur but it is not associated with general changes in the population of these species in southern Moravia. 61 out of 176 bee species were recorded in the Steppe for the first time. Pyrobombus lapidarius was eudominant. The highest dominance was observed for Halictus simplex as a representative of the solitary species and for Nomada succincta as a representative of cleptoparasites. However, the major part of cleptoparasites (66 %) was not confirmed. The Shannon's index (H' = 3.97), Equitability (e = 0.77) and the Simpson's index (c = 0.04) were determined for bee populations. The following species occurred on the Steppe: a) ubiquitous species with an abnormally small population (49 species) and b) steppe specialists (xerothermophile) with abnormally abundant populations and strongly competitive to ubiquitous species (9 species). The survey revealed a significant decrease in the diversity of apidofauna on the Steppe, showing that the degradation change took place only partially and that some rare xerothermophile species on the Steppe were preserved. The composition of apidofauna still maintains its predominant xerothermophile character. The results of the survey were used to propose recommendations for managing the maintenance of the national nature reserve Mohelno Serpentine Steppe. Source

Majtanova N.,Ocne Oddelenie | Caernak M.,Ocne Oddelenie | Nekorancova J.,Ocne Oddelenie | Cernak A.,Ocne Oddelenie | Majtan J.,Ustav zoologie
Ceska a Slovenska Oftalmologie | Year: 2013

Honey is considered to be a natural product with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Its successful application in the treatment of chronic wounds and burns has promoted its further clinical use in other clinical departments, including ophthalmology. One of the major advantages of honey is its multi-factorial antibacterial action and the fact that there is no risk of developing bacterial resistance to it. In this work we discuss the current knowledge and new perspectives for honey therapy in treatment of eye diseases such as dry eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, cataracts and bullous keratopathy. Source

Rybnikar J.,Ustav zoologie | Prokes M.,Ustav zoologie | Mares J.,Ustav zoologie | Cilecek M.,Ustav biologie obratlovcu Akademie ved CR
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

Growth rate of sterlet larvae and juveniles during 2008 and 2009 was studied under experimental and farming conditions in the Czech Republic. The embryos hatched when reaching a mean total length (TL) of 9.0 mm. Larvae were fed by living food, with a gradual transition to dry diet. The exogenous feeding and the larval period of ontogeny started at DAH 9 (day after hatching) reaching TL of 15- 17 mm accompanied by melanin plug exclusion. Towards the end of larval period (DAH 39-43, TL 50-58 mm), the embryonic finfold disappeared and the formation of fin apparatus was nearly completed. During the larval and early juvenile development, daily increments of TL and weight (w) ranged between 0.33-4.23 mm.d-1 and 0.0018-1.6400 g.d-1, respectively. The specific growth rate (SGR) ranged from 25.65 to 2.73 %.d-1. Growth intensity and length parameters are similar to the Starry sturgeon, lower than those of the Siberian sturgeon and Russian sturgeon and significantly lower than at Beluga sturgeon. Sterlet's Fulton weight condition factor (FWC) was higher than in the Siberian and Starry sturgeon. The development was also observed on the basis of morphological changes. The larval development could be divided into six steps. Source

Kovacik P.,Slovenska Polnohospodarska Univerzita v Nitre | Kozanek M.,Slovenska Polnohospodarska Univerzita v Nitre | Takac P.,Ustav zoologie | Gallikova M.,Ustav zoologie | Varga L.,Slovenska Polnohospodarska Univerzita v Nitre
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

The effect of fermented pig manure processed on a bed of wooden shavings and fermented for seven days by larvae of house flies on the yield parameters of sunflowers have been investigated on Haplic Luvisol in the pot trial realized in vegetative cage placed on the territory of SAU in Nitra. The experiment consisted of six treatments (0, NPK, Manure1, Manure2, Manure3, Veget). Treatments 0, NPK, and Veget were compared with the treatments Manure1, Manure2, and Manure3, i.e. with fermented manure applied at doses of 4,6, and 8 t.ha-1. The results showed that application of fermented manure resulted in statistically significant greater stem thickness, higher leaf chlorophyll content, composites and harvest yield of seeds. The plants appeared healthy. Increasing the doses of fermented manure resulted in greater harvest yield of achenes and fat content in them. The dose of 4 t.ha-1 of fermented manure has proven to be insufficient. Out of the tested doses of 4,6 and 8 t.ha-1 of fermented manure the highest achene yield has been achieved at the dose of 8 t.ha-1 but it was lower than the yield of the treatments fertilized by NPK fertilizers or Veget. From the viewpoint of achene yield quality (fat content) out of six variants the best parameters were achieved with the treatment where fermented manure at the dose of 8 t.ha-1 was applied. The gathered data point towards the applicability and usefulness of manure processed by larvae of flies in agronomy. It is of note, that the manure fermentation period can be significantly shortened, whereby reducing the storage difficulties. Source

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