Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Brno, Czech Republic

Kamenickova I.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Water infiltration into the soil profile, surface runoff and soil erosion in arable lands depend on the conditions of the top layer. The tillage treatment of the top layer plays a key role in changes of the hydro-physical properties, mainly saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks of the surface layer. The aim of this study was to asses the impact of different tillage treatments on hydraulic conductivity in the locality Bohaté Málkovice. Field experimental works in this area were performed in 2009 and were repeted in 2011 on Haplic Chernozem, medium heavy loamy soil. The experimental area was divided into two parts; top layer of these plots was cultivated by applying conventional and reduced tillage treatment. Both these plots were sown with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare). For the field measurement of water infiltration into the soil was used double-ring infiltrometer (2009, 2011) and Minidisk infiltrometer (2011). Near the point were the infiltration was measured, the soil samples were always collected for laboratory determination of basic physical properties of soil (bulk density, porosity, initial and saturated water content, aeration of the soil) and saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks. For laboratory determination of Ks was used permeameter with constant gradient. For evaluation of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks using the double-ring infiltration method was used Philip's three-parameter equation and for evaluation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h) using Minidisk infiltrometer was used Zang's method. After two years of using repeatedly applied diff erent tillage treatments was significantly influenced saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks. The Ks value increased approximately six times for reduced tillage and more than three times for conventional tillage. Laboratory determined average values of Ks were compared with the average estimates of Ks from infiltration tests. The results were burdened by a number of errors (compaction, preferential flow). These mean values were higher for conventional and reduced tillage. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(-2cm) for reduced tillage was higher, for conventional tillage decreased approximately three times. Source


Dumbrovsky M.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny | Kamenickova I.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny | Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Pavlik F.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny | Sobotkova V.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

This paper evaluates different technologies of soil cultivation (conventional and minimization) in terms of physical properties and water regime of soils, where infiltration of surface water is a major component of subsurface water. Soil physical properties (the current humidity, reduced bulk density, porosity, water retention capacity of soil, pore distribution and soil aeration) is determined from soil samples taken from the organic horizon according to standard methodology. To observe the infiltration characteristics of surface layers of topsoil, the drench method (double ring infiltrometers) was used. For the evaluation of field measurements of infiltration, empirical and physically derived equations by Kostiakov and Philip and the three-parameter Philip-type equation were used. The Philip three-parameter equation provides physical based parameters near the theoretical values, a good estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and sorptivity C1 The parameter S of Philip's equation describes the real value of the sorptivity of the soil. Experimental research work on the experimental plots H. Meziří čko proceeded in the years 2005-2008. Source


Pavlik F.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny | Dumbrovsky M.,Ustav Vodniho Hospodarstvi Krajiny | Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Konecna J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Erosion processes in catchment areas cause serious ecologic and economic problems because of their negative consequences in terms of soil and water deterioration as well as for the environment as a whole. The soil particles washed down by water erosion are the biggest pollution factor due to their amount and volume. Sediments are the product of a selective process in which smaller and lighter particles are separated from eroded soil and taken away by water first. This means that the sediments contain a higher amount of organic, clay, and silt particles than the the original soils. Washed down sediments consist mainly of particles smaller than 0.05 mm (40-90% of the mixture). Other studies in the Czech Republic have focused on the assessment of soil erosion, based upon principles and parameters defined in the Universal Soil Loss Equation, but none of them has dealt with nutrient transport assessment as a consequence of water erosion. This paper presents a summary concerning the nutrient content in erosion sediment in a selected catchment area. Research work was conducted to identify and quantify the sediment load associated with nutrient transport especially from arable land on different soil types. Source

Discover hidden collaborations