Prague, Czech Republic
Prague, Czech Republic

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Ambrozova J.R.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Adamkova P.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Skopova V.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2014

This review deals with the current state of biodeterioration caused mainly by phototrophic organisms. Due to their metabolic activity, growth and life strategy, the microorganisms cause, erosion, degradation and colouring of building surface. Physical and chemical effects also contribute to biodeterioration. Identification of biodeteriogens and determination of the degree of surface colonization are the basis of conservation of building surface. Chemical methods of surface treatment might be hazardous and, therefore, the use of environment-friendly methods based on nanotechnologies seem more promising. This review deals with toxicity of Ag compounds, colloids, particles and ions. Some commercial products were tested both outdoors and in laboratory. The algal toxicity test has been modified and carried out on chlorococcal algae Desmodesmus quadricauda Greifswald 15. The preparations containing Ag nanoparticles are highly effective in solution and on materials surface. Their toxicity was mainly affected by their concentration and particle size. Ag nanoparticles are more toxic than Ag ions. The highest toxicity was found with preparations containing Ag nanoparticles with reactive surface.

Novikova D.,Ustav Kovovych Materialu A Korozniho Inzenyrstvi | Kouril M.,Ustav Kovovych Materialu A Korozniho Inzenyrstvi | Msallamova S.,Ustav Kovovych Materialu A Korozniho Inzenyrstvi | Stoulil J.,Ustav Kovovych Materialu A Korozniho Inzenyrstvi | Strnadova N.,Ustav Technology Vody A Prostredi
Koroze a Ochrana Materialu | Year: 2016

Concentrating of pore bentonite water as a result of water evaporation at the hot container surface is expected when the bentonite cover of the permanent nuclear waste container is being gradually saturated. The study assesses the influence of an extent of the pore water enrichment by chloride and sulphate ions up to a multiple of a hundred of their equilibrium concentration. An increase of concentration of these ions does not imply an increase of the electrolyte aggressivity automatically. A minimum of corrosion resistance was observed at triplicate concentration at all temperatures, 40, 70 and 90°C. Even more significant impact on corrosion behaviour was recognized for composition of anoxic atmosphere above the electrolyte. Contrary to nitrogen, the mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide remarkably elevates the electrolyte's corrosion aggressivity. © by M. Kouřil 2016.

Smrckova S.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Bindzar J.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2014

This review is aimed at the role of artificial sweeteners (acesulfam-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartam and sucralose) in water pollution. Attention is paid to biotic transformation and toxicity of the sweeteners. The review provides a list of the sweeteners found in waters focusing on acesulfame-K and sucralose. These compounds are markers of anthropogenic pollution of surface and underground waters. In addition, the review discusses the methods of determination in and elimination of artificial sweeteners from water. © 2014 Czech Society of Chemical Engineering. All Rights reserved.

Maca J.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Zabranska J.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Jenicek P.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2012

Sugar beet pulp, a by-product of sugar production, is traditionally used as livestock feed. One of the alternative options of its utilization is anaerobic fermentation. This study aims to test the possibility of single-stage anaerobic treatment of sugar beet pulp and to evaluate the application of this method. The main objective of the long-term experiment was to find out an optimal loading rate of the reactor and to determine biogas yields from sugar beet pulp. For this purpose, a daily fed anaerobic digester with a volume of 11 L was operated at 35 ±1°C. Organic loading rate of the reactor during the experiment ranged between 0.5-2.5 kg CHSK·m -3·d -1. A rather stable and high biogas production was achieved during the whole experiment (0.50 m 3·kg -1 COD SUB). Also the composition of biogas remained almost constant, its average methane content was 50.7%.

Kujalova H.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Hejnicova M.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Sykora V.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2011

The historical development of regulative measures concerning surfactants and detergents in EU and in the Czech Republic are reviewed and discussed. The key phenomenon is biological degradability of the detergent. The phenomenon and the principles of the methods prescribed for its evaluation are explained. A complete list of regulations dealing with surfactants and detergents is included in the article.

Smrckova S.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Bindzar J.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi | Halamova M.,Ustav Technology vody a prostredi
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2015

This review focuses on the most frequent iodinated contrast materials (ICM) used in X-ray diagnostics such as iopromide, iomeprol, iohexol, iopamidol, iothalamic, ioxithalamic acid. The main goal is to stress the potential occurrence of transformation products of these materials, which may put non-target organisms at risk. Attention is paid not only to the occurrence of ICM in various waters but also to biotic and abiotic processes eliminating ICM from the aqueous environment. In these processes biological treatment of wastewaters, ozonation, chlorination, chloramination, photolysis, advanced oxidations of wastewaters occur. Transformation products of ICM may affect the environment as well as human health. The effects have not yet been fully understood. Currently, reverse osmosis appears to be an appropriate method for the elimination of ICM since it does not give rise to any transformation products. The review also describes analytical methods for determination of ICM in water. In addition, it also discusses separation methods for isolation and concentration of ICM or their metabolites from aqueous media by SPE while the determination of relevant organics is usually performed by LC-MS. © 2015, Libertas Academica Ltd. All rights reserved.

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