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Brno, Czech Republic

Enantiosemy describes a situation in which a lexical unit acquires opposing meanings as a result of long-term semantic development. In this article, using several examples from Old Czech, I show how the enantiosemic status of words results from the development of lexical units or (sub-)systems. In the first example, the verb ublížit (to harm) has gained (on the background of words blízký, bližní, přiblížit, etc.) negative conceptual content through the systemic usage of the directional meaning of the prefix u-. In another example, the verb odpravit has changed its meaning from ‘to arrange regularly’ to ‘to murder’ during its own complicated semantic development (‘to make sth rightly’→‘to punish sb rightly’→‘to put sb to death’→‘to murder’). Finally, it is shown that the meanings ‘to love’ and ‘to hate’ of the Old Czech verb náviděti have become the result of a double progressive artificially-created opposition to the initial common Slavic nenáviděti – the previous concept, presented both in linguistic and in popular literature on its polysemy, is thus incorrect. © 2014, Best Edition. All rights reserved. Source

At the beginning of the third millennium, projects based on the linguistic geography method are being finalized. Territorial dialects, the object of research, are in decline. In the context of the Czech language, the state of dialects is recorded in the Czech Linguistic Atlas (1992–2011). Among others, this atlas shows how earlier contact with German dialects is manifested in the so-called Sudetenland, inhabited by a German-speaking population until 1945. The University of Regensburg, the University of Vienna and Masaryk University in Brno have begun a joint research project on the German dialects in this area not affected by the post-war expulsion of the German ethnic group from the Czech lands. The results of this research are presented in Kleiner Mährischer Sprachatlas der deutschen Dialekte (Small Language Atlas of German Dialects in Moravia and Silesia, 2011). This atlas is important as a record of the local German dialects in the phase of their decline: confrontation with the Czech Linguistic Atlas deepens existing knowledge of German-Czech dialectal interference. The paper discusses the contribution of this publication in the context of the existing research on contact features from both sides of the language border. © 2014, Best Edition. All rights reserved. Source

The aim of the present study is to analyse the organized and simple management of the derivation of feminine counterparts from masculine surnames in Czech on the basis of Language Management Theory (LMT). Two aspects of this issue arouse controversies: 1) the use of the masculine forms of surnames instead of feminine derivatives by some Czech women; 2) the legal regulation of surname usage, which allows women to register the masculine forms of surnames only under specific conditions. On the macro-level, the activities of linguistic institutions, register offices and lawmakers are analysed, with special focus on a bill concerning registries, names and surnames, proposed by a group of senators, which would implement the liberalization of the female surname registration. The bill was ultimately rejected by the Czech senate. On the micro-level, online discussions concerned with feminine surnames and related legal aspects are examined, focusing on participants’ noting and evaluation. Different standpoints, argumentation and language ideologies behind the employed arguments are presented. Some theoretical problems of LMT are also discussed, such as the cooperation of different participants during a single language management act, various forms of noting, or the language management approach to legislative processes. © 2015, Best Edition. All rights reserved. Source

Homolac J.,Ustav pro jazyk cesky AV CR | Homolac J.,R.O.S.A. | Mrazkova K.,Ustav pro jazyk cesky AV CR
Physical and Chemical News

The aim of the article is to propose a suitable system of usage classifications for a Czech monolingual dictionary in preparation. We presuppose that the labeling of linguistic items should reflect the situation of their typical usage rather than their association with a structural variety of Czech (e.g. Standard Czech, dialects or Common Czech). The proposed system is based on our understanding of the Czech language situation as consisting of two basic communicative domains (or sets of communicative situations): (1) everyday communication and (2) the realization of higher communicative aims. Other criteria of distinction applied within both domains are: the spoken or oral form of the utterance, typically Bohemian or Moravian use, the position of the linguistic item on the axis of high, medium and low style, expressiveness of the linguistic item, its position on the temporal axis (archaic, historical, new…), and its affiliation with a social sphere (subject field). The combination of these criteria yields many categories, some of which are empty, irrelevant or marginal to the classification of lexical items. In reducing these categories to those relevant for lexicographic description, we propose and define eleven basic labels and eight two-part label combinations (though other, multi-part combinations are also possible). © 2015, Best Edition. All Rights Reserved. Source

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