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Hruba D.,Ustav Preventivniho Lekarstvi
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2013

Background: Investigation of the relationship between smoking and breast cancer risk did not show a consensus in results - some studies described smoking as a risk factor, while others found its effects protective. Purpose: The newest studies explain these differences by the genetic polymorphism. Cigarette smoke contains at least 20 chemical carcinogens, which are deposited and metabolically activated in the breast and surrounding adipose tissues. The substances are further detected in the nipple discharge or as smoking-specific DNA adducts in breast tissue. Several studies postulate significantly higher risk of breast cancer among women who started smoking at an early age and/or before their first delivery. Some studies from Japan, China, California have shown that long-term exposure to passive smoking could significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in never smokers, while other scientist reject the evidence of this association as inconsistent. A possible protective effect of smoking on the incidence of breast cancer is explained by antiestrogenic activity of smoking, namely nicotine. Conclusion: Smoking may play a role in the breast cancer incidence. Due to a wide spectrum of harmful effects of smoking, and with regards to the worse prognosis of breast cancer among smoking patients, the common recommendations for cancer prevention are similarly plausible in case of breast cancer - no-smoking, no alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and body weightcontrol.

Hruba D.,Ustav Preventivniho Lekarstvi | Zaloudikova I.,Katedra Psychologie
Cesko-Slovenska Pediatrie | Year: 2011

Backround: The specific research is concerned on understanding the reasons of the progress from smoking attempts to regular smoking and development of addiction. Among others, the subjective feelings during the first exposure to nicotine and to other chemicals in cigarette smoke - both positive and negative - are involved into this process. The study evaluates data about the first smoking attempts and the immediate impressions obtained by ten-year old children involved into the programme "No-smoking is normal". Methods: Students in 5th course, who have tried to smoke, were asked about the situation in their first attempt and the source of cigarette, about course of event and immediate consequences and about repeating of smoking attempts. The differences between children with only single attempt and those who smoked repeatedly and between children with bad, neutral and good senses after smoking were compared. Results: Among 762 children at 5th course, 32.6% have experiences with smoking: one single attempt referred 17.2%, repeatedly smoked 15.4% of children. Repeatedly smoking children significantly more often described their first feelings either as neutral or good/excellent; reasons of smoking were more often "older image", acceptance to smoke offered cigarette or long arrange for the first smoking; more than one fifth of them will to smoke in future. Children with only single attempt more often described their feelings as negative and the reasons of smoking as coincidence, curiosity, conformation. Conclusion: In the short term evaluation, the positive sences about the first smoking attempts promotes their repetition while the negative sences in some children at younger school age delay their further smoking experiments.

Eva S.J.,Ortodonticke Oddeleni Kliniky Zubniho Lekarstvi | Ivanka M.,Ustav Preventivniho Lekarstvi
Pracovni Lekarstvi | Year: 2013

Allergy to examination latex gloves represents a serious problem for employees in medical services as well as for some patients. The disposable examinations gloves are one of the main components of the barrier protection against transmission of infection agents in the health services. Their use for dentists is in accord with the presently valid legislation in the Czech Republic. The increased occurrence of allergy to latex is associated with the following facts: in the eighties there was a sharp increase in the use of examination gloves in health services, there were technological changes in the latex processing and new technologies were introduced with applications of new chemicals in artificial latex production. The allergy reactions can be divided in two types: Type I and Type IV. The study employed anonymous questionnaires to determine actual conditions of skin reactions associated with the use of latex examination gloves and demonstrable skin damage in connection with the use of liquid soap or alcohol disinfection preparation in performing hand hygiene in dentists. The authors addressed probands, 36 dentists with private practice and 18 dental physicians, employees of the Clinic of Dental Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University and Faculty Hospital at Olomouc. In the dental physician group in private practice two out of 36 enrolled individuals reported hypersensitivity to latex examination gloves or to disinfection remedy. In 18 dental physicians of the Dental Medicine Clinic of Medical Faculty and Faculty Hospital at Olomouc, eight physicians reported hypersensitivity to latex examination gloves or to disinfection remedy. Only five dental physicians suffered from hypersensitivity to latex. Hypersensitivity to alcohol disinfection remedy was reported by three dental physicians. In four cases the simultaneous hypersensitivity to latex, face (Goa) powder and disinfection remedy for hygienic hand disinfection was reported. Dental physicians who reported hypersensitivity to some of the compounds in question belonged to the group with duration of practice for one to 10 years. One physician belonged to the group with 11-20 years of practice. Dental physicians who reported hypersensitivity to latex (6 probands) represent hypersensitivity prevalence to latex of 11.11%. A physician who reported hypersensitivity to powder in the gloves was included in this group. Hypersensitivity to some of the reported compounds was not evaluated by clinical allergist or dermatologist. In neither of these dental physicians skin tests or laboratory examinations were made. Conclusion: The observed prevalence of hypersensitivity to latex is 11.11 %. The results may be influenced by error associated with a small number of probands.

Vlckova J.,Ustav Preventivniho Lekarstvi | Rupes V.,Konzultant v Ochranne Dezinsekci | Chmela J.,KHS Olomouc | Kensa M.,KHS Olomouc | Mazanek L.,KHS Olomouc
Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie | Year: 2011

A total of 498 head lice (2nd and 3rd instar larvae females and males) combed out of the hair of 38 children were exposed to the delousing formulations Diffusil H Forte Spray (carbaryl 1%) Diffusil Care (isopropyl myristate cyclomethicone and dimethiconol) and Paranit (coconut oil anise oil and ylang ylang oil) in in vitro tests. The first two formulations i. e. Diffusil H Forte Spray and Diffusil Care caused 100% mortality of exposed lice while Paranit only killed 12.2% of exposed lice.

Smidova I.,Ustav Preventivniho Lekarstvi
Prakticky Lekar | Year: 2012

Oesophageal cancer is not a common cancer. In 2008, there were 9.2 cases in men and only 1.7 in women per 100 000 inhabitants in the Czech Republic. However, it has very high mortality - over 70%, partly due to often late diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this article is to calculate the cost of treatment of oesophageal cancer that directly results from alcohol abuse in the Czech Republic in 2004 to 2008.

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