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Prague, Czech Republic

Zeleny T.,Institute Ekonomickych Studii | Bencko V.,Ustav hygieny a epidemiologie
Prakticky Lekar | Year: 2011

This article analyses two attributes of health care systems. The first is the continual growth of health expenditure seen right across the western world; and the second is the efficiency of mixed health care systems in select countries, of which combined healthcare financing is one, with significant private and public sector involvement. The countries that have been selected are the - USA (as the country with the highest influence of the private sector in health care), - France (with its middling influence), and - Japan, where the private sector is allowed input into health care but is very strictly regulated by a zero profit rule. The result is that the systems with greater private sector influence tend to have lesser occupancy, worse quality factors and significantly higher expenditure. This suggests the hypothesis that the influence of the private sector on health care is negatively correlated to its efficiency. The confirmation or refutal of this hypothesis is left for further more detailed analysis. Source

The key obstacle in contemporary medicine consists in rapidly growing financial demands of diagnostic techniques and frequently expensive modern drugs. Their undoubted effectiveness presents itself through an increase in life expectancy, especially of men in the past two decades in the Czech Republic. Due to the rapid growth in financial demands of the therapy, primary prevention, thus preventing disease, found itself in the role of a Cinderella. Why? Without a doubt will useful investments pay off, yet unfortunately in such a long time in which several political leaderships may rotate. This is one of the main reasons, why attempts for a primary prevention are often left aside. When realized, they are frequently just in a form of a limited campaign. The paradox of today's era is, and one can't exclude that in the near future, a situation may appear, in which the costs of patient therapy will set such high demands on society, that politicians will finally critically understand the importance of investing into primary prevention. This concerns cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and diabetes type II, which go hand in hand with today's plague -obesity, just like as the primary prevention of malignant neoplasms and other growing problems of general public's health. This also includes e.g. osteoporosis and neuro-degenerative diseases linked to the increasing age of our population. Last but not least there is the field of highly desired preventive activities in stomatology branch. The neglected dental caries and paradontosis related problems directly and quite negatively affect the quality of our life. The challenge of 21st century medicine is the anticipation of diseases and their primary prevention as an substantial, elementary contribution towards increasing the quality of life of not only our, but for coming generations as well. Source

Bencko V.,Ustav hygieny a epidemiologie | Prikazska M.,Statni zdravotni ustav
Prakticky Lekar | Year: 2010

The most common food-borne infections in the Czech Republic are salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. The number of reported salmonellosis cases has declined in recent years, while campylobacteriosis has been reported with increasing frequency since 1985 and has become the leading intestinal disease in many European countries. The highest age-specific incidence rates of salmonellosis have been observed in 0 and 1-4 year-old outpatients and in older hospitalised patients with other underlying diseases. The most frequent causative agent is Salmonella Enteritidis. The suspected vehicle can be best traced in outbreaks. Most Salmonella outbreaks are associated with collective catering (school and business canteens, etc.) and family celebrations where home-made pastries and specialities and products containing eggs and mayonnaise are commonly served. Campylobacteriosis, which is most frequently caused by Campylobacter jejuni, has shown the greatest increase in the youngest age groups (0 and 1-4-year-olds), which suggests poorer hygiene in food processing and handling (particularly in households). The most commonly suspected vehicles of infection are chicken and minced meat. Recently, attention has been paid to listeriosis cases and outbreaks. A relatively high fatality rate of 20-30 % has been reported in immune-compromised individuals (patients with other underlying diseases such as malignancies and immunosuppressed patients), particularly in higher age groups. In the Czech Republic, an increase in hepatitis E following a primary food-borne infection has been observed, independently of imported sources. Food-borne viral infections have also shown an upward trend. Bacterial food intoxications included in food-borne infections are caused by toxin producers, with botulinum toxin and toxins produced by some strains of golden Staphylococcus being clinically most important. Source

Zvolsky M.,Ustav Zdravotnickych Informaci a Statistiky Ceske Republiky | Nechanska B.,Ustav Zdravotnickych Informaci a Statistiky Ceske Republiky | Kralikova E.,Ustav hygieny a epidemiologie
Casopis Lekaru Ceskych | Year: 2012

Background. According to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision, tobacco dependence is coded by group F17 - Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of tobacco. There are other codes for diagnoses and conditions associated with tobacco use. The aim of our analysis was to determine how often these codes are reported in clinical practice. Methods and results. We observed the incidence of diagnoses F17, P04.2, Z72.0 or T65.2 in years 2002-2011 in hospitalized patients and the F17 diagnosis in patients of psychiatric health facilities. According to data from the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic diagnoses indicating smoking patients were reported in 1.5% of hospitalized patients in 2011, although the prevalence of smoking in the population is around 30% in last 15 years. Smoking-related diagnoses were reported in 2.1% of cases in Internal medicine departments. Codes F17, T65.2 and Z72.0 occurred as an accessory diagnose in vascular brain disease in 1.8% of hospitalizations and for respiratory tract neoplasms (dg. C32-C34) it was 7.1% of hospitalizations. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the underestimation of the importance of smoking and its relationship to clinical disciplines. Although it is one of the most common diseases in the population with a direct relation to fatal diseases of civilization, the information on its incidence is not used in clinical practice. © 2008-2013 MeDitorial. © 2008-2013 MeDitorial. Source

Vaccination is one of the most important achievements in the field of prevention of infectious diseases, which in the 19th century were one of the most common causes of death in Europe, and still in the developing world are the major cause of mortality especially in child population. Vaccination is one of the few activities in the area of disease prevention fulfilling all the conditions required by contemporary medicine "based on evidence" and his questioning is to some extent a fashion, but utterly undesirable phenomena of the postmodern society, emphasizing individual freedom in decision making without the necessary balance its duties and responsibilities, in terms of the principle of solidarity to the society in which he lives. Source

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