Ustav agrochemie

Aš, Czech Republic

Ustav agrochemie

Aš, Czech Republic

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Novosadova I.,R.Ø.S.A. | Ruiz-Sinoga J.D.,University of Malaga | Zahora J.,Ustav Agrochemie | Fiserova H.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa). Ecosystem functioning of these steppes is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. grass show different fertility and different microclimatic conditions than in surrounding bare soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima L. on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration). Basal and potential microbial respirations in the soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. were, in general, not significantly different from the bare soils. The differences were less than 10%. Significantly less ethylene produced by microbial activity in soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. after the addition of glucose could indicate the dependence of rhizospheric microbial communities on available carbon compounds. It can be concluded, that the soil respiration in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems is not necessarily associated with the patchy plant distribution and that some microbial activities characteristics can be unexpectedly homogenous.


Zatloukalova A.,Ustav agrochemie | Losak T.,Ustav agrochemie | Hlusek J.,Ustav agrochemie | Pavlousek P.,Ustav vinohradnictvi a vinaystvi | And 2 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno) visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1) unfertilised control; 2) spring soil application of Kieserite - 20 kg Mg.haA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o; 3) 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop - Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.haA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o; 4) 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top - Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.haA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o. No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40-1.67%) and Ca (1.63-1.91%) in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3-4 to 0.42-0.49% and 0.34-0.40%, respectively compared to treatments 1-2 (0.29-0.30% and 0.22%, respectively). The content of Zn (173-380 mg.kgA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o) and Mn (90-551 mg.kgA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o) increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.haA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o) in treatments 1-4 were the following: 7.04-8.16-7.51-7.26 t.haA one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlaSsky (Riesling italico) to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil o, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5-17.9 °NM), titratable acids (12.78- 13.25 g.F) and the pH of must (3.02-3.11) did not differ among the treatments.


Losak T.,Ustav agrochemie | Zatloukalova A.,Ustav agrochemie | Szostkova M.,Ustav agrochemie | Hlusek J.,Ustav agrochemie | And 2 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

In a one-year vegetation pot experiment we compared the effect of the digestate from a biogas station and mineral fertilisers on yield and quality parameters of kohlrabi, variety Seguza. Four treatments were used in the trial: 1) untreated control, 2) urea, 3) digestate, 4) urea, triple super phosphate, KCl, MgSO4. The rate of N was the same in treatments 2-4,1.5 g N/pot. In treatment 4 the rate of P, K and Mg corresponded with the rate of these nutrients in the digestate treatment (3). The weight of single bulbs of the control unfertilised treatment were significantly the lowest (22.9%), as well as the nitrate (6.0%) and ascorbic acid content (66.2%) compared to the urea treatment (100%) and the other fertilised treatments. After the application of the digestate (treatment 3) and mineral fertilisers (treatment 4) the weight of single bulbs significantly increased by 27.9 and 29.2%, respectively, compared to the urea treatment (2). The content of ascorbic acid in the fertilised treatments did not differ (772-789 mg/kg) but it increased significantly compared to the unfertilised treatment (511 mg/kg). There were no significant differences between the two treatments fertilised with mineral fertilisers in the bulb nitrate content (678 and 641 mg NO3 -/kg fresh matter, respectively). After digestate application their contents decreased significantly to 228 mg NO3 -/kg fresh matter. Digestate treatment resulted in comparable or better yield and qualitative parameters compared to treatment with mineral fertilisers.


Szostkova M.,Ustav Agrochemie | Vitez T.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

This contribution focuses on an analysis of sand from nine different wastewater treatment plants in South Moravian Region. We conducted an analysis and evaluation of microbial properties of sand in accordance to Act No. 185/2001 Coll. on waste as amended, resp. Decree No. 381/2001 Coll. Content of following parameters were monitored, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, coliform bacteria, enterococci, total solid, ash free dry mass. We encountered several interesting findings, which pertained mainly to the content of microorganisms in sand. Knowledge of microorganism content should show, how the primary treatment of the wastewater treatment plant works, and should be very interesting indicator.


Vitezova M.,Ustav agrochemie | Vitez T.,Mendel University in Brno | Mlejnkova H.,Oddeleni hydrobiologie | Losak T.,Ustav agrochemie
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3), the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/ m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.


Vitezova M.,Ustav agrochemie | Mach P.,Mendel University in Brno | Vitez T.,Mendel University in Brno | Losak T.,Ustav agrochemie
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Composting represents one of the technologies of processing of biodegradable municipal waste. Samples collected from composting plants were analyzed chemically, physically and microbiologically The pH of bio waste samples increased from 6.5 to 8.6. The total carbon to nitrogen ratio in samples of bio waste decreased, in the course of composting, from 40:1 up to the value of 25:1 while the total nitrogen to phosphorus ratio decreased from 10:1 up to 8:1. Indicator groups of microorganisms were monitored in compost samples. Representatives of Enterobacter genus, namely E. cloacae and E. aerogenes were identified in the samples on the basis of biochemical tests. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. order Bacillales and Actinomycetales, were present in appreciable amounts.


Vitezova M.,Ustav Agrochemie | Vitez T.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

This work deals with the infl uence of selected heavy metals, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc and cadmium on respiratory activity of microorganisms during the composting process. We focused on comparing the respiratory activity of microorganisms in the compost aft er composting process in the presence of diff erent concentrations of above mentioned metals and the measured results were confronted with the valid Czech standard for industrial composts. The results show that the high inhibitory effect at low concentrations, about 1 mg/dm3, has cobalt, for which the limit concentration is no set by Czech standard. Other heavy metals exhibit an inhibitory effect at concentrations higher than maximum allowable concentration, which is set in Czech standard for compost class I and II, with regard to their application to agricultural land.


Musilova L.,Ustav Agrochemie | Losak T.,Ustav Agrochemie | Hlusek J.,Ustav Agrochemie | Vitezova M.,Ustav Agrochemie | And 5 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

In two-year small-plot field experiments in Žabčice u Brna we explored the effect of nitrogen fertilisation with urea and urea with urease inhibitor (Urea + UI) on the content of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in tubers and tops of potatoes of the variety Karin. The experiment involved 7 treatments. Nitrogen rates in treatments 1-7 were the following: 1) 90 kg N/ha - Urea; 2) 72 kg N/ha - Urea; 3) 54 kg N/ha - Urea; 4) 90 kg N/ha - Urea + UI; 5) 72 kg N/ha - Urea + UI; 6) 54 kg N/ha - Urea + UI; 7) unfertilised control. Each treatment was repeated 4 times. Both fertilisers (Urea, Urea + UI) were refl ected irregularly in the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg in the potato biomass and were based on the weather of the year, rate of fertiliser and analysed plant organ (tuber, top). In both years the contents of N, K, Ca and Mg were higher in the tops. The P content was balanced both in the tops and tubers. Some changes in the chemical composition were observed particularly in the case of nitrogen. In 2010 the nitrogen content was higher in tubers (1.44-1.65% N) after the application of both of the higher rates of urea + UI than after the application of urea alone (1.30-1.34% N). In 2011 the N content in tops decreased to 2.97-3.26% N when the highest rate of N was applied in both fertilisers, as against the other treatments (3.60-4.09% N). The contents of the other elements (P, K, Ca, Mg) were not significantly aff ected by the kind fertiliser and way of fertilising or the diff erences among treatments were minimal. In general we can conclude that er the application of both types of fertilisers the contents of the observed elements did not change fundamentally in the tops or tubers.


Babianek P.,Ustav Agrochemie | Vavrousova P.,Ustav Technology Potravin | Ryant P.,Ustav Agrochemie | Hrivna L.,Ustav Technology Potravin | Cerkal R.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

The objective of the three-year small-plot trial was to assess the effect of the weather of the year, forecrop, variety, form of sulphur (elementary and sulphate) and additional nitrogen fertilising on the yields and the content of N-substances of the malt barley varieties Jersey and Sebastian. The trial was carried out in 2006-2008 at the experimental site of the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, the Žabčice locality. The Jersey and Sebastian varieties were grown after three different f orecrops - winter wheat with ploughed down straw, sugar beet with ploughed down tops and maize for grain with ploughed down straw. The fertilising treatments differed in the form of sulphur (elementary and sulphate) and date of the additional nitrogen fertilising. As the sulphate form we chose ammonium sulphate (40 kg.ha -1 N and 45.6 kg.ha-1 S) and the same amount was supplied in the form of elementary sulphur; nitrogen was in the form of urea. A dose of 30 kg.ha-1 of ammonium nitrate with limestone (ANL) was applied as additional nitrogen fertilising. The results show that the weather conditions of the respective years had an almost 94 % effect on yields. The very strong effect of the weather overshadowed the effect of the f orecrop (3.8 %); the effect of the variety was only half that of the f orecrop (1.8 %). The form of additionally applied sulphur and nitrogen during cultivation had a relatively little effect on the yields (0.2 %). The f orecrop affected the content of N-substances most of all (47.3 %). The quality of barley grain is markedly dependent on the course of the weather of the year (40.1 %); the effect of the variety on the content of N-substances was relatively low (1.6 %). Applications of various forms of sulphur had a small effect on the grain quality (0.01 %), while the effect on additional nitrogen fertilising on the content of N-substances was 8.5 %.

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