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Szostkova M.,Ustav agrochemie | Vitez T.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

This contribution focuses on an analysis of sand from nine different wastewater treatment plants in South Moravian Region. We conducted an analysis and evaluation of microbial properties of sand in accordance to Act No. 185/2001 Coll. on waste as amended, resp. Decree No. 381/2001 Coll. Content of following parameters were monitored, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, coliform bacteria, enterococci, total solid, ash free dry mass. We encountered several interesting findings, which pertained mainly to the content of microorganisms in sand. Knowledge of microorganism content should show, how the primary treatment of the wastewater treatment plant works, and should be very interesting indicator.

Novosadova I.,R.O.S.A. | Ruiz-Sinoga J.D.,University of Malaga | Zahora J.,Ustav agrochemie | Fiserova H.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa). Ecosystem functioning of these steppes is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. grass show different fertility and different microclimatic conditions than in surrounding bare soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima L. on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration). Basal and potential microbial respirations in the soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. were, in general, not significantly different from the bare soils. The differences were less than 10%. Significantly less ethylene produced by microbial activity in soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. after the addition of glucose could indicate the dependence of rhizospheric microbial communities on available carbon compounds. It can be concluded, that the soil respiration in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems is not necessarily associated with the patchy plant distribution and that some microbial activities characteristics can be unexpectedly homogenous.

Vitezova M.,Ustav agrochemie | Vitez T.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

This work deals with the infl uence of selected heavy metals, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc and cadmium on respiratory activity of microorganisms during the composting process. We focused on comparing the respiratory activity of microorganisms in the compost aft er composting process in the presence of diff erent concentrations of above mentioned metals and the measured results were confronted with the valid Czech standard for industrial composts. The results show that the high inhibitory effect at low concentrations, about 1 mg/dm3, has cobalt, for which the limit concentration is no set by Czech standard. Other heavy metals exhibit an inhibitory effect at concentrations higher than maximum allowable concentration, which is set in Czech standard for compost class I and II, with regard to their application to agricultural land.

Babianek P.,Ustav agrochemie | Vavrousova P.,Ustav Technology Potravin | Ryant P.,Ustav agrochemie | Hrivna L.,Ustav Technology Potravin | Cerkal R.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

The objective of the three-year small-plot trial was to assess the effect of the weather of the year, forecrop, variety, form of sulphur (elementary and sulphate) and additional nitrogen fertilising on the yields and the content of N-substances of the malt barley varieties Jersey and Sebastian. The trial was carried out in 2006-2008 at the experimental site of the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, the Žabčice locality. The Jersey and Sebastian varieties were grown after three different f orecrops - winter wheat with ploughed down straw, sugar beet with ploughed down tops and maize for grain with ploughed down straw. The fertilising treatments differed in the form of sulphur (elementary and sulphate) and date of the additional nitrogen fertilising. As the sulphate form we chose ammonium sulphate (40 kg.ha -1 N and 45.6 kg.ha-1 S) and the same amount was supplied in the form of elementary sulphur; nitrogen was in the form of urea. A dose of 30 kg.ha-1 of ammonium nitrate with limestone (ANL) was applied as additional nitrogen fertilising. The results show that the weather conditions of the respective years had an almost 94 % effect on yields. The very strong effect of the weather overshadowed the effect of the f orecrop (3.8 %); the effect of the variety was only half that of the f orecrop (1.8 %). The form of additionally applied sulphur and nitrogen during cultivation had a relatively little effect on the yields (0.2 %). The f orecrop affected the content of N-substances most of all (47.3 %). The quality of barley grain is markedly dependent on the course of the weather of the year (40.1 %); the effect of the variety on the content of N-substances was relatively low (1.6 %). Applications of various forms of sulphur had a small effect on the grain quality (0.01 %), while the effect on additional nitrogen fertilising on the content of N-substances was 8.5 %.

Musilova L.,Ustav agrochemie | Losak T.,Ustav agrochemie | Hlusek J.,Ustav agrochemie | Vitezova M.,Ustav agrochemie | And 5 more authors.
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

In two-year small-plot field experiments in Žabčice u Brna we explored the effect of nitrogen fertilisation with urea and urea with urease inhibitor (Urea + UI) on the content of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in tubers and tops of potatoes of the variety Karin. The experiment involved 7 treatments. Nitrogen rates in treatments 1-7 were the following: 1) 90 kg N/ha - Urea; 2) 72 kg N/ha - Urea; 3) 54 kg N/ha - Urea; 4) 90 kg N/ha - Urea + UI; 5) 72 kg N/ha - Urea + UI; 6) 54 kg N/ha - Urea + UI; 7) unfertilised control. Each treatment was repeated 4 times. Both fertilisers (Urea, Urea + UI) were refl ected irregularly in the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg in the potato biomass and were based on the weather of the year, rate of fertiliser and analysed plant organ (tuber, top). In both years the contents of N, K, Ca and Mg were higher in the tops. The P content was balanced both in the tops and tubers. Some changes in the chemical composition were observed particularly in the case of nitrogen. In 2010 the nitrogen content was higher in tubers (1.44-1.65% N) after the application of both of the higher rates of urea + UI than after the application of urea alone (1.30-1.34% N). In 2011 the N content in tops decreased to 2.97-3.26% N when the highest rate of N was applied in both fertilisers, as against the other treatments (3.60-4.09% N). The contents of the other elements (P, K, Ca, Mg) were not significantly aff ected by the kind fertiliser and way of fertilising or the diff erences among treatments were minimal. In general we can conclude that er the application of both types of fertilisers the contents of the observed elements did not change fundamentally in the tops or tubers.

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