Vetro A.,Biotechnology Research Laboratories |
Iascone M.,Ussd Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica |
Limongelli I.,Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo |
Ameziane N.,VU University Amsterdam |
And 16 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2015
The diagnosis of VACTERL syndrome can be elusive, especially in the prenatal life, due to the presence of malformations that overlap those present in other genetic conditions, including the Fanconi anemia (FA). We report on three VACTERL cases within two families, where the two who arrived to be born died shortly after birth due to severe organs' malformations. The suspicion of VACTERL association was based on prenatal ultrasound assessment and postnatal features. Subsequent chromosome breakage analysis suggested the diagnosis of FA. Finally, by next-generation sequencing based on the analysis of the exome in one family and of a panel of Fanconi genes in the second one, we identified novel FANCL truncating mutations in both families. We used ectopic expression of wild-type FANCL to functionally correct the cellular FA phenotype for both mutations. Our study emphasizes that the diagnosis of FA should be considered when VACTERL association is suspected. Furthermore, we show that loss-of-function mutations in FANCL result in a severe clinical phenotype characterized by early postnatal death. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
Sana M.E.,Ussd Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica |
Pezzoli L.,Ussd Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica |
Preda L.,Centro per la Diagnosi e il Trattamento delle Cardiopatie Congenite |
Ferrazzi P.,The Surgical Center |
Iascone M.,Ussd Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014
Biventricular hypertrophy (BVH) is a disease state characterized by the thickening of the ventricle walls. The differential diagnosis of BVH with other congenital and familial diseases in which increased ventricle wall thickness is a prominent clinical feature is fundamental due to its therapeutic and prognostic value, mainly during infancy. We describe a 2-month-old infant presenting BVH. Using exome sequencing, we identified a novel de novo 3-bp deletion in the RAF1 gene that is located in the binding active site for the 14-3-3 peptide. Based on docking calculations, we demonstrate that this novel mutation impairs protein/target binding, thus constitutively activating Ras signaling, which is a dysregulation associated with Noonan syndrome. Finally, our study underlines the importance of molecular modeling to understand the roles of novel mutations in pathogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | Unita di Genetica Medica, U.O. di Genetica Medica, University of Naples Federico II, Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A | Year: 2016
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic disorder caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions encompassing multiple genes, including the retinoic acid induced 1 gene-RAI1-or mutations in RAI1 itself. The clinical spectrum includes developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities, with distinctive physical features that become more evident with age. No patients have been reported to have had offspring. We here describe a girl with developmental delay, mainly compromising the speech area, and her mother with mild intellectual disabilities and minor dysmorphic features. Both had sleep disturbance and attention deficit disorder, but no other atypical behaviors have been reported. In both, CGH-array analysis detected a 15q13.3 interstitial duplication, encompassing CHRNA7. However, the same duplication has been observed in several, apparently healthy, maternal relatives. We, thus, performed a whole exome sequencing analysis, which detected a frameshift mutation in RAI1, de novo in the mother, and transmitted to her daughter. No other family members carried this mutation. This is the first report of an SMS patient having offspring. Our experience confirms the importance of searching for alternative causative genetic mechanisms in case of confounding/inconclusive findings such as a CGH-array result of uncertain significance. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | Ussd Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica, Indiana University, USC di Anatomia Patologica, Italian Institute of Technology and Centro per la Cardiomiopatia Ipertrofica e le Cardiopatie Valvolari
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Several genetic conditions can lead to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Among them, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), caused by mutations in sarcomere genes, is the most common inherited cardiac disease. Instead, RASopathies, a rare class of disorders characterized by neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous abnormalities and sometimes presenting with LVH, are caused by mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway. We report on a 62-years-old male who presented isolated severe obstructive LVH but did not carry the sarcomere mutation previously identified in his affected relatives. By exome sequencing, we detected a novel mutation in HRAS gene (NM_005343.2:p.Arg68Trp), present also in the probands daughter, who showed mild LVH and severe intellectual disability. The cardiac phenotype was indistinguishable between family members carrying either mutation. In silico studies suggested that the mutated HRAS protein is constitutionally activated. Consistently, functional characterization in vitro confirmed elevated HRAS-GTP accumulation and downstream RAS-MAPK pathway activation that are known to drive cell proliferation in LVH. Our study emphasizes the role of RAS signaling in cardiac hypertrophy and highlights the complexity in differential diagnosis of RASopathies. In fact, the mild features of RASopathy and the recurrence of sarcomeric HCM in this family delayed the correct diagnosis until comprehensive genetic testing was performed.
Milani D.,University of Milan |
Bedeschi M.F.,University of Milan |
Iascone M.,Ussd Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica |
Chiarelli G.,University of Milan |
And 2 more authors.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2012
We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy with a de novo deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 encompassing band 1q31.1-q32.1, minor facial anomalies, mild developmental delay, and behavioral disorders. His postnatal karyotype was normal. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified and characterized a de novo 1q interstitial deletion of about 15.6 Mb, which partially overlaps those of other reported cases. We considered the gene content of the deleted region in an attempt to compare the clinical features of our patient with these other cases, even though they were not characterized molecularly in detail. The most remarkable difference was the absence of microcephaly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a de novo 1q31.1-q32.1 deletion. Moreover, it illustrates how molecular delineation associated with fine clinical characterization can improve the genotype-phenotype correlations of classical cytogenetic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG.