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Girolami F.,University of Florence | Iascone M.,USSD Laboratorio Genetica Medica | Tomberli B.,University of Florence | Bardi S.,University of Florence | And 11 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2014

Background-Next-generation sequencing might be particularly advantageous in genetically heterogeneous conditions, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in which a considerable proportion of patients remain undiagnosed after Sanger. In this study, we present an Italian family with atypical HCM in which a novel disease-causing variant in α- actinin 2 (ACTN2) was identified by next-generation sequencing. Methods and Results-A large family spanning 4 generations was examined, exhibiting an autosomal dominant cardiomyopathic trait comprising a variable spectrum of (1) midapical HCM with restrictive evolution with marked biatrial dilatation, (2) early-onset atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular block, and (3) left ventricular noncompaction. In the proband, 48 disease genes for HCM, selected on the basis of published reports, were analyzed by targeted resequencing with a customized enrichment system. After bioinformatics analysis, 4 likely pathogenic variants were identified: TTN c.21977G>A (p.Arg7326Gln); TTN c.8749A>C (p.Thr2917Pro); ACTN2 c.683T>C (p.Met228Thr); and OBSCN c.13475T>G (p.Leu4492Arg). The novel variant ACTN2 c.683T>C (p.Met228Thr), located in the actin-binding domain, proved to be the only mutation fully cosegregating with the cardiomyopathic trait in 18 additional family members (of whom 11 clinically affected). ACTN2 c.683T>C (p.Met228Thr) was absent in 570 alleles of healthy controls and in 1000 Genomes Project and was labeled as Damaging by in silico analysis using polymorphism phenotyping v2, as Deleterious by sorts intolerant from tolerant, and as Disease-Causing by Mutation Taster. Conclusions-A targeted next-generation sequencing approach allowed the identification of a novel ACTN2 variant associated with midapical HCM and juvenile onset of atrial fibrillation, emphasizing the potential of such approach in HCM diagnostic screening. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Biagini E.,University of Bologna | Olivotto I.,Centro Of Riferimento Per Le Cardiomiopatie | Iascone M.,USSD Laboratorio Genetica Medica | Parodi M.I.,Science Laboratorio Of Genetica Umana | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

End-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ES-HC) has an ominous prognosis. Whether genotype can influence ES-HC occurrence is unresolved. We assessed the spectrum and clinical correlates of HC-associated mutations in a large multicenter cohort with end-stage ES-HC. Sequencing analysis of 8 sarcomere genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, MYL2, MYL3, and ACTC1) and 2 metabolic genes (PRKAG2 and LAMP2) was performed in 156 ES-HC patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) <50%. A comparison among mutated and negative ES-HC patients and a reference cohort of 181 HC patients with preserved LVEF was performed. Overall, 131 mutations (36 novel) were identified in 104 ES-HC patients (67%) predominantly affecting MYH7 and MYBPC3 (80%). Complex genotypes with double or triple mutations were present in 13% compared with 5% of the reference cohort (p = 0.013). The distribution of mutations was otherwise indistinguishable in the 2 groups. Among ES-HC patients, those presenting at first evaluation before the age of 20 had a 30% prevalence of complex genotypes compared with 19% and 21% in the subgroups aged 20 to 59 and ≥60 years (p = 0.003). MYBPC3 mutation carriers with ES-HC were older than patients with MYH7, other single mutations, or multiple mutations (median 41 vs 16, 26, and 28 years, p ≤0.001). Outcome of ES-HC patients was severe irrespective of genotype. In conclusion, the ES phase of HC is associated with a variable genetic substrate, not distinguishable from that of patients with HC and preserved EF, except for a higher frequency of complex genotypes with double or triple mutations of sarcomere genes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pezzoli L.,USSD Laboratorio Genetica Medica | Sana M.E.,USSD Laboratorio Genetica Medica | Iascone M.,USSD Laboratorio Genetica Medica
Gene | Year: 2012

We describe a male patient affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with no point mutations in the eight sarcomeric genes most commonly involved in the disease. By multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) we have identified a multi-exons C-terminus deletion in the cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) gene. The rearrangement has been confirmed by long PCR and breakpoints have been defined by sequencing. The 3.5. kb terminal deletion is mediated by Alu-repeat elements and is predicted to result in haploinsufficiency of MYBPC3. To exclude the presence of other rare pathogenic variants in additional HCM genes, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 88 cardiomyopathy-associated genes but we did not identify any further mutation. Interestingly, the MYBPC3 multi-exons deletion was detectable by NGS. This finding broadens the range of mutational spectrum observed in HCM, contributing to understanding the genetic basis of the most common inherited cardiovascular disease. Moreover, our data suggest that NGS may represent a new tool to achieve a deeper insight into molecular basis of complex diseases, allowing to detect in a single experiment both point mutations and gene rearrangements. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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