USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit

Lubbock, TX, United States

USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit

Lubbock, TX, United States
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Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for mote trash systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPAapproved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Two of the seven gins had mote trash systems where the exhaust airstreams were not combined with other major systems. In terms of capacity, the two gins were typical of the industry, averaging 32.4 bales/h during testing. The mote trash system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.011 kg/227-kg bale (0.025 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.021 kg/bale (0.046 lb/bale), respectively. The system average PM10 emission factor was higher and the system average total particulate emission factor was lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. Mote trash system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 0.32 to 0.37 kg/h (0.72-0.81 lb/h). The ratio of mote trash system PM10 to total particulate was 53.2%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins are extremely low. Also, some commonly used cotton gin systems were not represented or were combined with another system under a single emission factor in AP-42. There were no 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors published for 2nd stage mote systems. The objective of this study was to collect PM10 emission factor data for 2nd stage mote systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems. and 4) abatement technologies. Five of the seven gins were equipped with 2nd stage mote systems that were not combined with 1st stage mote systems. In terms of capacity, the five gins were typical of the industry, averaging 29.4 bales/h during testing. The 2nd stage mote system average emission factors for PM and total particulate were 0.0081 kg/227-kg bale (0.018 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.011 kg/bale (0.025 lb/ bale), respectively. System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42 for 1st and 2nd stage mote systems combined. The 2nd stage mote system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 0.072 to 0.59 kg/h (0.16-1.31 lb/h). The ratio of 2nd stage mote system PM10 to total particulate was 72.1%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for master trash systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Five of the seven gins had master trash systems. In terms of capacity, the five gins were typical of the industry, averaging 36.2 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm samples. This larger lint material can affect the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. The master trash system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.056 kg/227-kg bale (0.123 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.152 kg/bale (0.335 lb/bale), respectively. The system average PM10 emission factor was higher and the system average total particulate emission factor was lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. Master trash system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 1.39 to 4.18 kg/h (3.06-9.21 lb/h). The ratio of master trash system PM10 to total particulate was 36.9%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Whitelock D.P.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2013

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the stand point of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because current EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors did not exist. The objective of this study was the development of PM2.5 emission factors for cotton gin 3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning systems based on the EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Five of the seven gins were equipped with first-stage mote systems where the exhaust airstream was not combined with a second-stage mote system. In terms of capacity, the five gins were typical of the industry, averaging 27.5 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A Test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm and/or ≤ 2.5 μm samples. This larger lint material can impact the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. Average measured first-stage mote system PM2.5 emission factor based on the five tests (14 total test runs) was 0.0041 kg/227-kg bale (0.0090 lb/500-lb bale). The first-stage mote system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.023 kg/bale (0.051 lb/bale) and 0.032 kg/bale (0.071 lb/bale), respectively. The first-stage mote system PM2.5 emission rate from test averages ranged from 0.026 to 0.19 kg/h (0.057-0.43 lb/h). System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The ratios of first-stage mote system PM2.5 to total particulate, PM2.5 to PM10, and PM10 to total particulate were 12.7, 17.9, and 70.8%, respectively. © The Cotton Foundation 2013.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 included combined mote cleaner PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) and total particulate emission factors and not individual mote system emission factors. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for 1st stage mote systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from five gins (14 total test runs) were 0.00063 kg/227-kg bale (0.0014 lb/500-lb bale), 0.0054 kg/bale (0.012 lb/bale), and 0.0091 kg/bale (0.020 lb/bale), respectively. The 1st stage mote system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 16.4 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 2.49%, PM6 to total was 21.6%, and PM10 to total was 36.0%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 emission factor quality ratings for cotton gin PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) data are questionable, being extremely low. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for mote trash systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured of PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from two gins (6 total test runs) were 0.00031 kg/227-kg bale (0.00068 lb/500-lb bale), 0.0023 kg/bale (0.0051 lb/bale), and 0.0042 kg/bale (0.0093 lb/bale), respectively. The mote trash system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 23.9 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 1.75%, PM6 to total particulate was 13.3%, and PM10 to total particulate was 24.2%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 did not include PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) and total particulate emission factors for mote cyclone robber systems. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for mote cyclone robber systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from three gins (9 total test runs) were 0.0011 kg/227-kg bale (0.0024 lb/500-lb bale), 0.0085 kg/bale (0.019 lb/bale), and 0.015 kg/bale (0.032 lb/bale), respectively. The mote cyclone robber system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 21.2 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 2.20%, PM6 to total particulate was 16.9%, and PM10 to total particulate was 29.0%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 emission factor quality ratings for cotton gin PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) data are questionable, being extremely low. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for combined lint cleaning systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from three gins (9 total test runs) were 0.0032 kg/227-kg bale (0.0070 lb/500-lb bale), 0.032 kg/bale (0.071 lb/bale), and 0.060 kg/bale (0.131 lb/bale), respectively. The combined lint cleaning system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 19.9 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 1.50%, PM6 to total particulate was 15.3%, and PM10 to total particulate was 28.2%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 emission factor quality ratings for cotton gin PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) data are questionable, being extremely limited. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for unloading systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from three gins (nine total test runs) were 0.0059 kg/227-kg bale (0.013 lb/500-lb bale), 0.053 kg/bale (0.117 lb/bale), and 0.084 kg/bale (0.185 lb/bale), respectively. The unloading system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 7.5 µm aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 4.39%, PM6 to total particulate was 39.5%, and PM10 to total particulate was 62.3%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015.


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) total particulate emission factors. EPA AP-42 emission factors generally are assigned a rating, from A (excellent) to E (poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Current EPA total particulate emission factor ratings for cotton gins are extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because the data were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional total particulate emission factor data for 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning systems from cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt using EPA-approved stack sampling methodology. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Five gins with 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system exhausts were sampled. The average production rate during testing for the five gins was 34.7 bales/h. The average 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emission factor based on five tests (14 total test runs) was 0.058 kg/227-kg bale (0.129 lb/500-lb bale). This average total particulate emission factor was less than that currently published in 1996 EPA AP-42, which was 0.11 kg/bale (0.24 lb/bale). The 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system test average emission rates ranged from 0.64 to 2.95 kg/h (1.41–6.49 lb/h). © 2015 The Cotton Foundation.

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