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Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for mote trash systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPAapproved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Two of the seven gins had mote trash systems where the exhaust airstreams were not combined with other major systems. In terms of capacity, the two gins were typical of the industry, averaging 32.4 bales/h during testing. The mote trash system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.011 kg/227-kg bale (0.025 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.021 kg/bale (0.046 lb/bale), respectively. The system average PM10 emission factor was higher and the system average total particulate emission factor was lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. Mote trash system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 0.32 to 0.37 kg/h (0.72-0.81 lb/h). The ratio of mote trash system PM10 to total particulate was 53.2%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014. Source


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins are extremely low. Also, some commonly used cotton gin systems were not represented or were combined with another system under a single emission factor in AP-42. There were no 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors published for 2nd stage mote systems. The objective of this study was to collect PM10 emission factor data for 2nd stage mote systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems. and 4) abatement technologies. Five of the seven gins were equipped with 2nd stage mote systems that were not combined with 1st stage mote systems. In terms of capacity, the five gins were typical of the industry, averaging 29.4 bales/h during testing. The 2nd stage mote system average emission factors for PM and total particulate were 0.0081 kg/227-kg bale (0.018 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.011 kg/bale (0.025 lb/ bale), respectively. System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42 for 1st and 2nd stage mote systems combined. The 2nd stage mote system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 0.072 to 0.59 kg/h (0.16-1.31 lb/h). The ratio of 2nd stage mote system PM10 to total particulate was 72.1%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014. Source


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Clif Boykin J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for master trash systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Five of the seven gins had master trash systems. In terms of capacity, the five gins were typical of the industry, averaging 36.2 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm samples. This larger lint material can affect the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. The master trash system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.056 kg/227-kg bale (0.123 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.152 kg/bale (0.335 lb/bale), respectively. The system average PM10 emission factor was higher and the system average total particulate emission factor was lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. Master trash system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 1.39 to 4.18 kg/h (3.06-9.21 lb/h). The ratio of master trash system PM10 to total particulate was 36.9%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014. Source


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 emission factor quality ratings for cotton gin PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) data are questionable, being extremely low. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for combined lint cleaning systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from three gins (9 total test runs) were 0.0032 kg/227-kg bale (0.0070 lb/500-lb bale), 0.032 kg/bale (0.071 lb/bale), and 0.060 kg/bale (0.131 lb/bale), respectively. The combined lint cleaning system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 19.9 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 1.50%, PM6 to total particulate was 15.3%, and PM10 to total particulate was 28.2%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015. Source


Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Boykin J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Holt G.A.,USDAARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 included combined mote cleaner PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) and total particulate emission factors and not individual mote system emission factors. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for 1st stage mote systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from five gins (14 total test runs) were 0.00063 kg/227-kg bale (0.0014 lb/500-lb bale), 0.0054 kg/bale (0.012 lb/bale), and 0.0091 kg/bale (0.020 lb/bale), respectively. The 1st stage mote system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 16.4 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 2.49%, PM6 to total was 21.6%, and PM10 to total was 36.0%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015. Source

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