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Meridian Station, MS, United States

Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Clif Boykin J.,USDAARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit | Holt G.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for cyclone robber systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Three of the seven gins were equipped with cyclone robber systems. In terms of capacity, the three gins were typical of the industry, averaging 26.6 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs included in the analyses had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm samples. This larger lint material can affect the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. The cyclone robber system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.010 kg/227-kg bale (0.022 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.018 kg/bale (0.040 lb/bale), respectively. System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The cyclone robber system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 0.16 to 0.44 kg/h (0.35- 0.96 lb/h). The ratio of cyclone robber system PM10 to total particulate was 55.9%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014. Source


Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Clif Boykin J.,USDAARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit | Holt G.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for combined mote systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Two of the seven gins were equipped with combined mote systems where the 1st and 2nd stage mote system exhaust airstreams were combined. In terms of capacity, the two gins were typical of the industry, averaging 35.1 bales/h during testing. The combined mote system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.098 kg/227-kg bale (0.215 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.141 kg/bale (0.310 lb/bale), respectively. System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were higher than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The combined mote system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 2.57 to 4.28 kg/h (5.66-9.44 lb/h). The ratio of combined mote system PM10 to total particulate was 69.3%. © The Cotton Foundation 2014. Source


Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Clif Boykin J.,USDAARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit | Holt G.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2014

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Also, some commonly used cotton gin systems were not represented or were combined with another system under a single emission factor in AP-42. There were no 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors published for mote cleaner systems. The objective of this study was to collect PM10 emission factor data for mote cleaner systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems, and 4) abatement technologies. Two of the seven gins had mote cleaner systems. The exhaust from one of the mote cleaner systems was combined with the module feeder dust system. The ginning rate of the two gins averaged 36.0 and 46.2 bales/h during testing for the stand-alone mote cleaner system and mote cleaner and module feeder dust system, respectively. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 μm samples. This larger lint material can affect the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. The average measured PM10 and total particulate emission factors for the stand-alone mote cleaner system were 0.050 kg/227-kg bale (0.109 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.090 kg/bale (0.199 lb/bale), respectively. The ratio of mote cleaner system PM10 to total particulate was 54.9%. The PM10 emission rate averaged 1.79 kg/h (3.95 lb/h) for the stand-alone mote cleaner system. The average measured PM10 and total particulate emission factors for the mote cleaner system combined with the module feeder dust system were 0.071 kg/bale (0.157 lb/bale) and 0.109 kg/ bale (0.241 lb/bale), respectively. The ratio of PM10 to total particulate for the mote cleaner system combined with the module feeder dust system was 65.1%. The PM10 emission rate averaged 3.27 kg/h (7.21 lb/h) for the combined mote cleaner and module feeder dust system. © The Cotton Foundation 2014. Source


Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Boykin J.C.,USDAARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit | Holt G.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, current EPA AP-42 emission factor quality ratings for cotton gin PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) data are questionable, being extremely low. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for master trash systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from five gins (15 total test runs) were 0.0035 kg/227-kg bale (0.0076 lb/500-lb bale), 0.026 kg/bale (0.058 lb/bale), and 0.048 kg/bale (0.106 lb/bale), respectively. The master trash system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 20.6 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 1.86%, PM6 to total particulate was 14.0%, and PM10 to total particulate was 25.7%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015. Source


Whitelock D.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Buser M.D.,Oklahoma State University | Boykin J.C.,USDAARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit | Holt G.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Cotton Science | Year: 2015

This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006 and again in 2013, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors were limited. In addition, EPA AP-42 included combined 1st and 2nd stage mote system PM10 (particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 10 µm) and total particulate emission factors and not individual mote system emission factors. The objective of this study was to characterize particulate emissions for 2nd stage mote systems from cotton gins across the cotton belt based on particle size distribution analysis of total particulate samples from EPA-approved stack sampling methods. Average measured PM2.5, PM6, and PM10 emission factors based on the mass and particle size analyses of EPA Method 17 total particulate filter and wash samples from five gins (15 total test runs) were 0.00030 kg/227-kg bale (0.00067 lb/500-lb bale), 0.0024 kg/bale (0.0054 lb/bale), and 0.0039 kg/bale (0.0087 lb/bale), respectively. The 2nd stage mote system particle size distributions were characterized by an average mass median diameter of 16.1 µm (aerodynamic equivalent diameter). Based on system average emission factors, the ratio of PM2.5 to total particulate was 2.87%, PM6 to total particulate was 23.0%, and PM10 to total particulate was 23.0%. © The Cotton Foundation 2015. Source

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