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Nantes, France

Anizan S.,USC 1329 LABERCA | Anizan S.,University of Nantes | Bichon E.,USC 1329 LABERCA | Bichon E.,University of Nantes | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

The use of anabolic steroids as growth promoters for meat-producing animals is banned within the European Union. However, screening for the illegal use of natural steroid hormones still represents a difficult challenge because of the high interindividual and physiological variability of the endogenous concentration levels in animals. In this context, the development of untargeted profiling approaches for identifying new relevant biomarkers of exposure and/or effect has been emerging for a couple of years. The present study deals with an untargeted metabolomics approach on the basis of GC-MS aiming to reveal potential biomarkers signing a fraudulent administration of 4-androstenedione (AED), an anabolic androgenic steroid chosen as template. After a sample preparation based on microextraction by packed sorbent, urinary profiles of the free and deglucurono-conjugates urinary metabolites were acquired by GC-MS in the full-scan acquisition mode. Data processing and chemometric procedures highlighted 125 ions, allowing discrimination between samples collected before and after an administration of 4-AED. After a first evaluation of the signal robustness using additional and independent non-compliant samples, 17 steroid-like metabolites were pointed out as relevant candidate biomarkers. All these metabolites were then monitored using a targeted GC-MS/MS method for an additional assessment of their capacity to be used as biomarkers. Finally, two steroids, namely 5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol and 5α-androst-2-en-17-one, were concluded to be compatible with such a definition and which could be finally usable for screening purpose of AED abuse in cattle. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Desdoits-Lethimonier C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Desdoits-Lethimonier C.,University of Rennes 1 | Albert O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Albert O.,University of Rennes 1 | And 11 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

Background Phthalic acid esters are widely used in the manufacture of plastics. Numerous studies have shown that these phthalates impair testicular testosterone production in the rat. However, the scarce and contradictory data concerning humans have cast doubt over whether these compounds are also anti-androgenic in man. We therefore investigated the direct effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on organo-cultured adult human testis and a human cell line. Methods Adult human testis explants or NCI-H295R adrenocortical human cells were cultured with DEHP or MEHP. The effects of ketoconazole, used as a reference molecule, were also assessed. Results In both models, DEHP and MEHP significantly inhibited testosterone production. The effects of both phthalates appeared to be specific for steroidogenesis, as INSL3 production by Leydig cells was not altered. Furthermore, the phthalates of interest had no effect on inhibin B production by Sertoli cells or on germ cell apoptosis. As only a small fraction of the phthalates added was found in the testis explants, and as these compounds were found to be metabolized, we estimate that the anti-androgenic effects observed occurred at concentrations of phthalates that are of the same order of magnitude as exposures reported in the literature for men. Conclusions We provide the first evidence that DEHP and MEHP can inhibit testosterone production in the adult human testis. This is consistent with recent epidemiological findings of an inverse correlation between exposure to MEHP and testosterone concentrations. © 2012 The Autho. Source

Maamar M.B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Maamar M.B.,University of Rennes 1 | Lesne L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lesne L.,University of Rennes 1 | And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Few studies have been undertaken to assess the possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the reproductive hormone balance in animals or humans with often contradictory results. We investigated possible direct endocrine disruption by BPA of the fetal testes of 2 rat strains (14.5-17.5 days post-coitum) and humans (8-12 gestational weeks) and under different culture conditions. BPA concentrations of 10-8M and 10-5M for 72h reduced testosterone production by the Sprague-Dawley fetal rat testes, while only 10-5M suppressed it in the Wistar strain. The suppressive effects at 10-5M were seen as early as 24h and 48h in both strains. BPA at 10-7-10-5M for 72h suppressed the levels of fetal rat Leydig cell insulinlike factor 3 (INSL3). BPA exposure at 10-8M, 10-7M, and 10-5M for 72h inhibited testosterone production in fetal human testes. For the lowest doses, the effects observed occurred only when no gonadotrophin was added to the culture media and were associated with a poorly preserved testicular morphology. We concluded that (i) BPA can display antiandrogenic effects both in rat and human fetal testes; (ii) it is essential to ascertain that the divergent effects of endocrine disruptors between species in vitro do not result from the culture conditions used, and/or the rodent strain selected; (iii) the optimization of each in vitro assay for a given species should be a major objective rather than the search of an hypothetical trans-species consensual model-system, as the organization of the testis is intrinsically different between mammalian species; (iv) due to the uncertainty existing on the internal exposure of the human fetal testis to BPA, and the insufficient number of epidemiological studies on the endocrine disruptive effects of BPA, caution should be taken in the extrapolation of our present results to the human reproductive health after fetal exposure to BPA. © 2015 Maamar et al. Source

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