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Frasineanu C.,Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest | Chiurciu I.A.,USAMV | Stamate V.,INMA
INMATEH - Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Environmental protection is of major importance because economic development takes place in the natural environment in which we are existing and working. According to the Environmental Protection Law 137/1995, pollution is the direct or indirect introduction, as a result of activities carried out by humans, of substances in soil or air that can harm human society and environment quality. Pollutants can be characterized according to the source, the aggregation, of changes determined. Among the elements that characterize a pollutant analyzed through its interactions with the environment, the most important are the maximum permissible concentration, degree of persistence and synergy effects that trigger when they are together with other pollutants. This article presents the optimal level of pollution reduction and of losses in correlation with the benefits and the costs of implementing. © 2013.

Joubert A.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | Simoneau P.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | Campion C.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | Bataille-Simoneau N.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an important stress signalling pathway involved in the cellular development and environmental adaptation of fungi. We investigated the importance of the UPR pathway in the pathogenicity of the plant necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, which causes black spot disease on a wide range of Brassicaceae. We identified the AbHacA gene encoding the major UPR transcription regulator in A. brassicicola. Deletion of AbHacA prevented induction of the UPR in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Loss of UPR in mutants resulted in a complete loss of virulence and was also associated with a cell wall defect and a reduced capacity for secretion. In addition, our results showed that the UPR was triggered by treatment of mycelia with camalexin, i.e. the major Arabidopsis thaliana phytoalexin, and that strains lacking functional AbHacA exhibited increased in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial plant metabolites. We hypothesize that the UPR plays a major role in fungal virulence by altering cell protection against host metabolites and by reducing the ability of the fungus to assimilate nutrients required for growth in the host environment. This study suggests that targeting the UPR pathway would be an effective plant disease control strategy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Cazanescu S.,IPCT INSTALATII SRL | Pienaru A.,USAMV | Manea R.,USAMV | Virsta A.,USAMV
12th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference and EXPO - Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection, SGEM 2012 | Year: 2012

Severe floods can occur as result of the combined effect of heavy rain and intensive snow melting in the same area, during the spring season. Such floods often are produced in Romania as well as in Bulgaria, causing material damages and loss of human lives. In European Union, flood defense management is an essential part of the integrated water management and, according to the Flood Directive 2007/60/EC [6] on the assessment and management of the flood risks, it has the following objectives: flood risk identification, analysis and estimation, in order to settle and apply an adequate policy in each country and region. The subject of this paper consists in presentation of the building of an advanced hydrologic model, using software developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. The software used is HEC-GeoHMS (Geospatial Hydrologic Modeling Extension) [9] in conjunction with HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Modeling System) [8] and running under ArcGIS engine. A few changes have been necessary for the process, because two important data sets used for model generation (land cover and soil characteristics) are subject to different classification in USA and Europe. The data necessary for hydrologic model generation can be extracted from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the studied area. The most suitable data-set for such kind of projects is HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) [1] [10] which was extracted from the raw information collected during The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission. HydroSHEDS provides hydrographic information in a consistent and comprehensive format for regional and global-scale applications. The database offers a suite of geo-referenced data including stream networks, watershed boundaries and drainage directions. In order to begin the hydrologic modeling process, it is necessary to extract some basic watershed properties such as: basin area, slope, longest flow path and stream network density, curve number index (CN), lag time, time of concentration and to delineate streams and watersheds. The software used for this operation is ArcGIS with HEC-GeoHMS and ArcHydro extensions. These computed hydrologic data are used as input parameters for the rainfall-runoff model in HEC-HMS. Also, HEC-GeoHMS relates the hydrologic data and parameters from Geographic Information System with HEC-HMS interface, allowing to perform the runoff computation without any supplementary data-translation process. The hydrologic model obtained can be used for design and operation of flood control projects, regulating floodplain activities, monitoring water use, local and regional watershed planning, flood damage mitigation and real-time system operation of flood events, being an instrument for the assessment and management of flood risk as Directive 2007/60/EC requires to all Member States [6]. © SGEM2012 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM Published by STEF92 Technology Ltd.

International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2013

Significant floods all over the world, including Romania and Bulgaria, have occurred in the last years as result of climate change and extreme meteorological phenomena manifestation. Overland flooding, the most common type of flooding event usually occurs when rivers or streams overflow their banks as a result of heavy rainfalls or fast snowmelt. In European Union, flood defence management is an essential part of the integrated water management and the European Commission Directive 2007/60, regarding the estimation and management of the flood risks, states that all the member countries have to achieve flood risks maps till the end of 2013. Flood hazard maps must be created to help the communities in finding out which are the different flood risk areas and to provide public awareness and useful information to local authorities and decisions makers in case of possible flood events. Flood risk areas should be also identified and delimited for future land use and development. The development of risk maps assumes the existence and access to extensive databases, detailed maps and GIS data depots for most of the necessary information, as well as expensive software (i.e. ArcGIS, MIKE) and skilled experts. Unfortunately, these criteria are not always met. This paper presents an alternative method to prepare preliminary floodplain maps, based on the use of Autodesk products and Open Source software. The purpose of the method is to introduce basic satellite image display and processing techniques using open source software and freely available satellite data to allow floodplain maps development without using expensive software and unaffordable data. The method consists in DTM (Digital Terrain Model) generation, rivers and watershed delineation and hydraulic modelling in order to generate floodplain maps. © SGEM2013 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM.

International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2014

Demand for the world's increasingly water supply is rising rapidly, challenging its availability for food production and putting global food security at risk. This aspect combined with climate change determine people to focus on all possibilities to obtain and preserve fresh water resources. In this context, data regarding evapotranspiration on earth, as significant part of water cycle in nature, are extremely valuable and important to know. This paper presents a way to create evapotranspiration maps for large territories, using remote sensed data collected by satellite, analyzed and processed with an improved algorithm, by a specialized toolbox, capable to be integrated in ArcGIS. The theoretically approach and results of the methodology are illustrated using the generation of Bulgarian evapotranspiration map as example. © SGEM2014.

Popa D.,University of Craiova | Hanescu V.,University of Craiova | Constantin C.,ICPA | Codreanu M.,USAMV
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2010

As a result of some studies performed by the research team from the discipline of Microbiology, University of Craiova - Romania concerning the process of stabilising the dumps of slag and ashes through populating them with species of horticultural plants suitable to the mycorrhizal relationships, it was pointed out the fact that the mycorrhizal process is representing a critical factor in the minerals cyclic process. Another aspect is concerning the permanent change of the mycorrhizal fungi species, of the host plant species (cultivated and invading ones) and of the physicochemical features of the ashes dumps - functioning as substrate. The mycorrhizal plants had a faster growth; their vigurousity was translated into the biomass multiplication above 70%, comparing with the non-mycorrhizal vegetation. The presence of some disturbances within the mycorrhizal plants cultivated on the plateau of the dump was possible by maintaining the mono-cultures and modifying the plants species composition, the mycorrhizae types and mycorrhizal fungi species being the main factors for assuring the perenity of the vegetation.

Cavalu S.,University of Oradea | Ratiu C.,University of Oradea | Ponta O.,Babes - Bolyai University | Simon V.,Babes - Bolyai University | And 4 more authors.
Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures | Year: 2014

In the present study, new bioceramic with the composition 75%Al2O3-25%3Y-TZP was investigated in vitro and in vivo with the aim of evaluating the osseointegration improvement by surface modification upon SnF2 and NaBF4 treatment. In vitro tests were carried out in human fibroblasts culture, whereas in vivo tests were performed using an animal model (rabbit). Morphological details of the fibroblasts attached on the surfaces were emphasized by SEM showing the formation of a shell-like coating after 24 hours incubation. Histological images demonstrated the biocompatibility of the treated implants as no gaps, fibrous tissue, multinucleated cells or inflamation were found at the bone implant interface. A better bone to implant contact was noticed in the case of SnF2 treatment. The results are in agreement with some previously reported studies that also justify the long-term effectiveness of topical fluoride treatment in dentistry and maxillofacial applications.

Todica M.,Babes - Bolyai University | Stefan R.,USAMV | Pop C.V.,Babes - Bolyai University | Olar L.,USAMV
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2015

The modification of local polymeric conformation of poly(acrylic) acid (PAA), induced by hydration and neutralization with triethanol amine (TEA), was investigated by IR and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of water is the perturbation of hydrogen bonds established between different polymeric chains and the modification of the local conformation of the polymer. The neutralization with TEA affects the carboxylic groups and modifies the local conformation of the polymer. These modifications are correlated with the shift and the modification of the characteristics of IR and Raman spectra.

Olteanu D.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Filip A.,USAMV | Muresan A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Nagy A.,USAMV | And 5 more authors.
Acta Physiologica Hungarica | Year: 2012

Inflammation and oxidative stress are important pathways in the development of liver fibrosis following biliary obstruction. Aim: To evaluate the effects of low dose dexamethasone and chitosan, a natural compound with no side-effects, on liver damage caused by bile duct ligation in rats. Materials and methods: Fifty female Wistar rats, randomly and equally divided in 5 groups: I (SHAM) underwent only laparotomy, II (BDL) with bile duct ligation, III (DEX) 0.125 mg/kg dexamethasone i.m. daily, IV (CS) 1 mg/kg chitosan by gavage and group V (DEX+CS), both substances. After six days, the following parameters were assessed from liver homogenates: malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH), total SH groupings, nitric oxide (NO), and from plasma: MDA, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB). A histopathological examination was performed using some of the elements of the Knodell Histological Activity Index.Results: BDL significantly increases the levels of MDA, liver enzymes, and the necro-inflammatory score compared to the sham group and it decreases the antioxidant capacity. DEX protects against lipid peroxidation and improves the antioxidant capacity, but it is not able to protect the hepatocytes. Chitosan significantly decreases (p<0.05) the levels of MDA (0.07±0.01 vs 0.10±0.01 nmoles/mg protein BDL group, p=0.027) and also ALT, TB, GGT and reduces liver necrosis and inflammation (2.75±0.95 vs 1±0, p<0.05). Both CS and DEX reduce the level of NO significantly.Conclusion: BDL induces severe oxidative stress damage after six days already. Chitosan proved very efficient in protecting the hepatocytes against oxidative stress, a fact supported by the histological findings. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Todica M.,Babes - Bolyai University | Pop C.V.,Babes - Bolyai University | Stefan R.,USAMV | Nagy M.,Babes - Bolyai University | Garabagiu S.,Institutul National Of Cercetare Si Dezvoltare A Tehnologiilor Izotopice Si Moleculare
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Chemia | Year: 2015

Some physical properties of poly (acrylic acid) gels with embedded gold nanoparticles, (PAA-GNP), as prepared and after neutralization with triethanolamine, (TEA), were investigated by UV-VIS and fluorescence methods. The UV-VIS spectra of the PAA-GNP gels contain the characteristics absorption peaks of both PAA and GNP pure components, with modified intensities and positions. Excitation at 250 nm of pure PAA and pure GNP are followed by characteristic fluorescence transitions. The peaks of pure components appear in the fluorescence spectrum of the PAA-GNP gels with some modifications compared with the pure state. Some modifications of the UV-VIS and florescence spectra were observed after neutralization with TEA. The particularities of these spectra indicate some changes of the conformation of the polymeric matrices after the introduction of GNP and after neutralization. © 2015, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Catedra de Filosofie Sistematica. All rights reserved.

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