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Joubert A.,UMR PaVe no. 77 | Bataille-Simoneau N.,UMR PaVe no. 77 | Campion C.,UMR PaVe no. 77 | Guillemette T.,UMR PaVe no. 77 | And 6 more authors.
Cellular Microbiology | Year: 2011

Camalexin, the characteristic phytoalexin of Arabidopsis thaliana, inhibits growth of the fungal necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. This plant metabolite probably exerts its antifungal toxicity by causing cell membrane damage. Here we observed that activation of a cellular response to this damage requires cell wall integrity (CWI) and the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathways. Camalexin was found to activate both AbHog1 and AbSlt2 MAP kinases, and activation of the latter was abrogated in a AbHog1 deficient strain. Mutant strains lacking functional MAP kinases showed hypersensitivity to camalexin and brassinin, a structurally related phytoalexin produced by several cultivated Brassica species. Enhanced susceptibility to the membrane permeabilization activity of camalexin was observed for MAP kinase deficient mutants. These results suggest that the two signalling pathways have a pivotal role in regulating a cellular compensatory response to preserve cell integrity during exposure to camalexin. AbHog1 and AbSlt2 deficient mutants had reduced virulence on host plants that may, at least for the latter mutants, partially result from their inability to cope with defence metabolites such as indolic phytoalexins. This constitutes the first evidence that a phytoalexin activates fungal MAP kinases and that outputs of activated cascades contribute to protecting the fungus against antimicrobial plant metabolites. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Lidia C.,Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Cojocaru I.,Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Beschea S.,USAMV | Neamtu M.,Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
Farmacia | Year: 2015

In the recent years, substances without a basic analgesic action were used for the treatment of different types of pain, which do not have a basic analgesic action. Recently, valproic acid was used in combination with some analgesics in the treatment of various types of pain. This study aimed to identify the type of pharmacodynamic interaction of valproic acid with analgesics. The study was conducted on mice, using an inflammatory pain model. The results demonstrate the synergism between valproic acid and tramadol, the subadditivity between valproic acid and paracetamol. These results may lead to useful hypotheses concerning the action mechanisms of these substances and to the development of binary combinations in fixed proportion that might represent more effective modalities of treating pain. © 2015 Romanian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences. All Right reserved.

Frasineanu C.,Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest | Chiurciu I.A.,USAMV | Stamate V.,INMA
INMATEH - Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Environmental protection is of major importance because economic development takes place in the natural environment in which we are existing and working. According to the Environmental Protection Law 137/1995, pollution is the direct or indirect introduction, as a result of activities carried out by humans, of substances in soil or air that can harm human society and environment quality. Pollutants can be characterized according to the source, the aggregation, of changes determined. Among the elements that characterize a pollutant analyzed through its interactions with the environment, the most important are the maximum permissible concentration, degree of persistence and synergy effects that trigger when they are together with other pollutants. This article presents the optimal level of pollution reduction and of losses in correlation with the benefits and the costs of implementing. © 2013.

Joubert A.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | Simoneau P.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | Campion C.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | Bataille-Simoneau N.,UMR PAVE No. 77 | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an important stress signalling pathway involved in the cellular development and environmental adaptation of fungi. We investigated the importance of the UPR pathway in the pathogenicity of the plant necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, which causes black spot disease on a wide range of Brassicaceae. We identified the AbHacA gene encoding the major UPR transcription regulator in A. brassicicola. Deletion of AbHacA prevented induction of the UPR in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Loss of UPR in mutants resulted in a complete loss of virulence and was also associated with a cell wall defect and a reduced capacity for secretion. In addition, our results showed that the UPR was triggered by treatment of mycelia with camalexin, i.e. the major Arabidopsis thaliana phytoalexin, and that strains lacking functional AbHacA exhibited increased in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial plant metabolites. We hypothesize that the UPR plays a major role in fungal virulence by altering cell protection against host metabolites and by reducing the ability of the fungus to assimilate nutrients required for growth in the host environment. This study suggests that targeting the UPR pathway would be an effective plant disease control strategy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2013

Significant floods all over the world, including Romania and Bulgaria, have occurred in the last years as result of climate change and extreme meteorological phenomena manifestation. Overland flooding, the most common type of flooding event usually occurs when rivers or streams overflow their banks as a result of heavy rainfalls or fast snowmelt. In European Union, flood defence management is an essential part of the integrated water management and the European Commission Directive 2007/60, regarding the estimation and management of the flood risks, states that all the member countries have to achieve flood risks maps till the end of 2013. Flood hazard maps must be created to help the communities in finding out which are the different flood risk areas and to provide public awareness and useful information to local authorities and decisions makers in case of possible flood events. Flood risk areas should be also identified and delimited for future land use and development. The development of risk maps assumes the existence and access to extensive databases, detailed maps and GIS data depots for most of the necessary information, as well as expensive software (i.e. ArcGIS, MIKE) and skilled experts. Unfortunately, these criteria are not always met. This paper presents an alternative method to prepare preliminary floodplain maps, based on the use of Autodesk products and Open Source software. The purpose of the method is to introduce basic satellite image display and processing techniques using open source software and freely available satellite data to allow floodplain maps development without using expensive software and unaffordable data. The method consists in DTM (Digital Terrain Model) generation, rivers and watershed delineation and hydraulic modelling in order to generate floodplain maps. © SGEM2013 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM.

International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2014

Demand for the world's increasingly water supply is rising rapidly, challenging its availability for food production and putting global food security at risk. This aspect combined with climate change determine people to focus on all possibilities to obtain and preserve fresh water resources. In this context, data regarding evapotranspiration on earth, as significant part of water cycle in nature, are extremely valuable and important to know. This paper presents a way to create evapotranspiration maps for large territories, using remote sensed data collected by satellite, analyzed and processed with an improved algorithm, by a specialized toolbox, capable to be integrated in ArcGIS. The theoretically approach and results of the methodology are illustrated using the generation of Bulgarian evapotranspiration map as example. © SGEM2014.

Popa D.,University of Craiova | Hanescu V.,University of Craiova | Constantin C.,ICPA | Codreanu M.,USAMV
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2010

As a result of some studies performed by the research team from the discipline of Microbiology, University of Craiova - Romania concerning the process of stabilising the dumps of slag and ashes through populating them with species of horticultural plants suitable to the mycorrhizal relationships, it was pointed out the fact that the mycorrhizal process is representing a critical factor in the minerals cyclic process. Another aspect is concerning the permanent change of the mycorrhizal fungi species, of the host plant species (cultivated and invading ones) and of the physicochemical features of the ashes dumps - functioning as substrate. The mycorrhizal plants had a faster growth; their vigurousity was translated into the biomass multiplication above 70%, comparing with the non-mycorrhizal vegetation. The presence of some disturbances within the mycorrhizal plants cultivated on the plateau of the dump was possible by maintaining the mono-cultures and modifying the plants species composition, the mycorrhizae types and mycorrhizal fungi species being the main factors for assuring the perenity of the vegetation.

Cavalu S.,University of Oradea | Ratiu C.,University of Oradea | Ponta O.,Babes - Bolyai University | Simon V.,Babes - Bolyai University | And 4 more authors.
Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures | Year: 2014

In the present study, new bioceramic with the composition 75%Al2O3-25%3Y-TZP was investigated in vitro and in vivo with the aim of evaluating the osseointegration improvement by surface modification upon SnF2 and NaBF4 treatment. In vitro tests were carried out in human fibroblasts culture, whereas in vivo tests were performed using an animal model (rabbit). Morphological details of the fibroblasts attached on the surfaces were emphasized by SEM showing the formation of a shell-like coating after 24 hours incubation. Histological images demonstrated the biocompatibility of the treated implants as no gaps, fibrous tissue, multinucleated cells or inflamation were found at the bone implant interface. A better bone to implant contact was noticed in the case of SnF2 treatment. The results are in agreement with some previously reported studies that also justify the long-term effectiveness of topical fluoride treatment in dentistry and maxillofacial applications.

Todica M.,Babes - Bolyai University | Stefan R.,USAMV | Pop C.V.,Babes - Bolyai University | Olar L.,USAMV
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2015

The modification of local polymeric conformation of poly(acrylic) acid (PAA), induced by hydration and neutralization with triethanol amine (TEA), was investigated by IR and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of water is the perturbation of hydrogen bonds established between different polymeric chains and the modification of the local conformation of the polymer. The neutralization with TEA affects the carboxylic groups and modifies the local conformation of the polymer. These modifications are correlated with the shift and the modification of the characteristics of IR and Raman spectra.

Olteanu D.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Filip A.,USAMV | Muresan A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Nagy A.,USAMV | And 5 more authors.
Acta Physiologica Hungarica | Year: 2012

Inflammation and oxidative stress are important pathways in the development of liver fibrosis following biliary obstruction. Aim: To evaluate the effects of low dose dexamethasone and chitosan, a natural compound with no side-effects, on liver damage caused by bile duct ligation in rats. Materials and methods: Fifty female Wistar rats, randomly and equally divided in 5 groups: I (SHAM) underwent only laparotomy, II (BDL) with bile duct ligation, III (DEX) 0.125 mg/kg dexamethasone i.m. daily, IV (CS) 1 mg/kg chitosan by gavage and group V (DEX+CS), both substances. After six days, the following parameters were assessed from liver homogenates: malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH), total SH groupings, nitric oxide (NO), and from plasma: MDA, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB). A histopathological examination was performed using some of the elements of the Knodell Histological Activity Index.Results: BDL significantly increases the levels of MDA, liver enzymes, and the necro-inflammatory score compared to the sham group and it decreases the antioxidant capacity. DEX protects against lipid peroxidation and improves the antioxidant capacity, but it is not able to protect the hepatocytes. Chitosan significantly decreases (p<0.05) the levels of MDA (0.07±0.01 vs 0.10±0.01 nmoles/mg protein BDL group, p=0.027) and also ALT, TB, GGT and reduces liver necrosis and inflammation (2.75±0.95 vs 1±0, p<0.05). Both CS and DEX reduce the level of NO significantly.Conclusion: BDL induces severe oxidative stress damage after six days already. Chitosan proved very efficient in protecting the hepatocytes against oxidative stress, a fact supported by the histological findings. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

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