Buckheit Iii R.W.,Johns Hopkins University |
Salgado M.,Johns Hopkins University |
Salgado M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Martins K.O.,USAMRIID |
Blankson J.N.,Johns Hopkins University
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2013
The mechanisms by which a small percentage of HIV-1 infected individuals known as elite suppressors or controllers are able to control viral replication are not fully understood. Early cases of viremic control were attributed to infection with defective virus, but subsequent work has demonstrated that infection with a defective virus is not the exclusive cause of control. Replication-competent virus has been isolated from patients who control viral replication, and studies have demonstrated that evolution occurs in plasma virus but not in virus isolates from the latent reservoir. Additionally, transmission pair studies have demonstrated that patients infected with similar viruses can have dramatically different outcomes of infection. An increased understanding of the viral factors associated with control is important to understand the interplay between viral replication and host control, and has implications for the design of an effective therapeutic vaccine that can lead to a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. © 2012 Springer Basel AG.
Shultz L.D.,The Jackson Laboratory |
Brehm M.A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School |
Bavari S.,USAMRIID |
Greiner D.L.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011
Immunodeficient mice bearing an IL2rγ null mutation permit engraftment of a functional human immune system and study of human-specific infectious agents that was not previously possible. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2012
Members of the Culex pipiens complex have been implicated as vectors of a number of arboviruses including St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile, Sindbis, and Rift Valley fever viruses. For some viruses, such as West Nile virus, laboratory studies have indicated that various members of this complex have a similar ability to become infected with and transmit virus, thus providing evidence for the similarity among the various members of this complex. On the other hand, although strains of Cx. pipiens from various parts of the world have all been relatively efficient vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, Cx. quinquefasciatus from Africa, Australia, and North America have been nearly refractory to this virus, thus indicating that the various members of this complex do not necessarily respond similarly to a particular arbovirus. Based on the similar response to some viruses and differing response to others, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus appear to be closely related, but distinct species. © 2012 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.
News Article | December 23, 2015
Ebola virus and bats have been waging a molecular battle for survival that may have started at least 25 million years ago, according to a study led by researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, the University of Colorado-Boulder (CU-Boulder) and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) that published online today in the journal eLife. The findings shed light on the biological factors that determine which bat species may harbor the virus between outbreaks in humans and how bats may transmit the virus to people.
News Article | August 25, 2016
Scientists have identified a new "multicomponent" virus -- one containing different segments of genetic material in separate particles -- that can infect animals, according to research published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe. This new pathogen, called Guaico Culex virus (GCXV), was isolated from several species of mosquitoes in Central and South America. GCXV does not appear to infect mammals, according to first author Jason Ladner, Ph.D., of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). However, the team also isolated a related virus -- called Jingmen tick virus, or JMTV -- from a nonhuman primate. Further analysis demonstrates that both GCXV and JMTV belong to a highly diverse and newly discovered group of viruses called the Jingmenvirus group. Taken together, the research suggests that the host range of this virus group is quite diverse--and highlights the potential relevance of these viruses to animal and human health. "Animal viruses typically have all genome segments packaged together into a single viral particle, so only one of those particles is needed to infect a host cell," Ladner explained. "But in a multicomponent virus, the genome is divided into multiple pieces, with each one packaged separately into a viral particle. At least one particle of each type is required for cell infection." Several plant pathogens have this type of organization, but the study published today is the first to describe a multicomponent virus that infects animals. Working with collaborators including the University of Texas Medical Branch and the New York State Department of Health, the USAMRIID team extracted and sequenced virus from mosquitoes collected around the world. The newly discovered virus is named for the Guaico region of Trinidad, where the mosquitoes that contained it were first found. In collaboration with a group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the USAMRIID investigators also found the first evidence of a Jingmenvirus in the blood of a nonhuman primate, in this case a red colobus monkey living in Kibale National Park, Uganda. The animal showed no signs of disease when the sample was taken, so it is not known whether the virus had a pathogenic effect. Jingmenviruses were first described in 2014 and are related to flaviviruses -- a large family of viruses that includes human pathogens such as yellow fever, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses. "One area we are focused on is the identification and characterization of novel viruses," said the paper's senior author Gustavo Palacios, Ph.D., who directs USAMRIID's Center for Genome Sciences. "This study allowed us to utilize all our tools--and even though this virus does not appear to affect mammals, we are continuing to refine those tools so we can be better prepared for the next outbreak of disease that could have an impact on human health." While it is difficult to predict, experts believe that the infectious viruses most likely to emerge next in humans are those already affecting other mammals, particularly nonhuman primates.