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Rankin J.W.,University of Texas at Austin | Richter W.M.,USA Mobility | Neptune R.R.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2011

Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e., deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e., reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Logan L.R.,USA Mobility
Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Improvement in functional skills is typically a goal of spasticity management. Spasticity management alone will improve the positive signs of the upper motor neuron syndrome without functional change. In this review, we demonstrate that a variety of therapy modalities are required to facilitate these improvements and impact the negative signs of the upper motor neuron syndrome. The evidence for neuromuscular electrical stimulation, surface electromyography training, serial casting, body weight-supported treadmill training, constraint-induced movement therapy, strengthening, and endurance training is reviewed as it relates to spasticity management. © 2011 Thomas Land publishers, Inc. Source


Greensmith T.M.,USA Mobility
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2016

In this paper we advance the «Personal Equation of Interaction», examining individual differences between users that can be used to predict the accuracy of analysts' reasoning during visual analysis. We report 2 studies which expand the use of the Personal Equation of Interaction (PEI) beyond its current scope of predicting the accuracy of interface learning tasks to predicting the outcome of visio-cognitive object categorization. These studies extend the research of Yamauchi & Markman [3] using the dual learning theory of Ashby & Maddox [17]. Because visual reasoning is ubiquitous to the human experience and integral to big data visualization analysis, this research bridges the domain divide between psychological categorization theory and visual data analysis using composite glyphs. We define a psychometric measure that predicts the accuracy of composite glyph categorization and discuss its impact going forward. © 2016 IEEE. Source


Imran A.,University of Oklahoma | Zoha A.,USA Mobility
IEEE Network | Year: 2014

While an al dente character of 5G is yet to emerge, network densification, miscellany of node types, split of control and data plane, network virtualization, heavy and localized cache, infrastructure sharing, concurrent operation at multiple frequency bands, simultaneous use of different medium access control and physical layers, and flexible spectrum allocations can be envisioned as some of the potential ingredients of 5G. It is not difficult to prognosticate that with such a conglomeration of technologies, the complexity of operation and OPEX can become the biggest challenge in 5G. To cope with similar challenges in the context of 3G and 4G networks, recently, self-organizing networks, or SONs, have been researched extensively. However, the ambitious quality of experience requirements and emerging multifarious vision of 5G, and the associated scale of complexity and cost, demand a significantly different, if not totally new, approach toward SONs in order to make 5G technically as well as financially feasible. In this article we first identify what challenges hinder the current self-optimizing networking paradigm from meeting the requirements of 5G. We then propose a comprehensive framework for empowering SONs with big data to address the requirements of 5G. Under this framework we first characterize big data in the context of future mobile networks, identifying its sources and future utilities. We then explicate the specific machine learning and data analytics tools that can be exploited to transform big data into the right data that provides a readily useable knowledge base to create end-to-end intelligence of the network. We then explain how a SON engine can build on the dynamic models extractable from the right data. The resultant dynamicity of a big data empowered SON (BSON) makes it more agile and can essentially transform the SON from being a reactive to proactive paradigm and hence act as a key enabler for 5G's extremely low latency requirements. Finally, we demonstrate the key concepts of our proposed BSON framework through a case study of a problem that the classic 3G/4G SON fails to solve. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source


Bentley F.,USA Mobility | Tollmar K.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2013

Self-logging is a critical component to many wellbeing systems. However, self-logging often is difficult to sustain at regular intervals over many weeks. We demonstrate the power of passive mobile notifications to increase logging of wellbeing data, particularly food intake, in a mobile health service. Adding notifications increased the frequency of logging from 12% in a one-month, ten-user pilot study without reminders to 63% in the full 60-user study with reminders included. We will discuss the benefits of passive notifications over existing interruptive methods. Copyright © 2013 ACM. Source

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