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Siderhurst M.S.,Eastern Mennonite University | Jang E.B.,Us Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2010

The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a serious crop pest throughout the Asia Pacific sub-continent and Southeast Asia, causing damage to tree fruits, cucurbits, and related crops. Attractants for female melon flies are of particular interest as they could be used in control tactics to reduce pest levels. Previous work has shown that freshly sliced cucumbers are attractive to female melon flies, but the compounds responsible for this attraction were not identified. The objective of the present study was to create a synthetic lure for female B. cucurbitae based on its close association with Cucurbitaceae. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of fresh and aged puréed cucumbers identified 31 compounds that were detected by females. Compounds that elicited EAD responses initially were screened as single components in glass McPhail traps in outdoor rotating olfactometer experiments. Four criteria were used to select compounds for testing in blends: a) strength of EAD response elicited; b) amount of compound present; c) relative attractiveness of a single compound; and d) compound novelty to Cucurbitaceae. Several synthetic blends attracted significant numbers of females in outdoor rotating olfactometer experiments; a nine-component blend (lure #7) was the most attractive. Field captures of female B. cucurbitae in traps baited with lure #7 were twice those in traps baited with Solulys protein bait. Besides having a female-biased attraction, this lure may have several advantages over protein baits: it can be used with a dry trap, is long lasting, and it captured low numbers of non-target species. Possible applications of this lure include trapping (for detection and/or monitoring/delimitation) and control/eradication (e. g., mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or as an attractant for existing protein insecticide bait sprays such as GF-120). © 2010 US Government.

Sookar P.,Food Republic | Alleck M.,Food Republic | Ahseek N.,Food Republic | Permalloo S.,Food Republic | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2014

Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising alternative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produced in large mass-rearing facilities. The present study was carried out to improve the rearing methods of the peach fruit fly so as to contribute to the development of effective mass-rearing protocols. Commercially available papaya, mango, peach and guava juices were found to be equally effective as oviposition stimulants. Moreover, with respect to the fecundity and fertility of flies, water was found to be as effective as the tested fruit juices. During the first 3 weeks, 90% of the total eggs produced were collected from adult oviposition cages holding 50,000 flies. A larval diet composed of sugarcane bagasse, ground maize, sugarcane sugar, waste brewer's yeast, wheat bran, benzoic acid, nipagin and water resulted in the following values for the quality control parameters: egg hatch 85%, pupal recovery >67%, pupal weight >4.2 g, pupation >95%, adult emergence >89%, and fliers >65%. Adult emergence and flight ability were similar for pupae placed in sand and vermiculite as the pupation medium. Copyright © ICIPE 2014.

Jang E.B.,Us Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center | Khrimian A.,Biocontrol | Siderhurst M.S.,Us Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center | Siderhurst M.S.,Eastern Mennonite University
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011

Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They feed compulsively on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstrated that mono-fluorination at the terminal carbon of the ME side-chain significantly reduced metabolic side-chain hydroxylation, while mono-fluorination of ME at position 4 of the aromatic ring blocked ring-hydroxylation but surprisingly enhanced side-chain hydroxylation. Here, we demonstrated that the introduction of fluorine atoms on both the ring and side-chain of ME blocks both positions that undergo enzymatic hydroxylation and, in particular, completely inhibits oxidative biotransformation of the allyl group. In laboratory experiments, B. dorsalis males initially were more attracted to both 1-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxy-2-(3,3-difluoro-2-propenyl)benzene (I) and 1-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxy-2-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene (II) than to ME. However, both I and II were taken up by flies at rates significantly less than that of ME. Flies fed with difluoroanalog II partially metabolized it to 5-fluoro-4-(3-fluoroprop-2-en-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenol (III), and flies fed with trifluoroanalog I produced 4-(3,3-difluoroprop-2-en-1-yl)-5-fluoro-2-methoxyphenol (V), but the rates of metabolism relative to rates of intakes were much lower compared to those of ME. Flies that consumed either the tri- or difluorinated analog showed higher post-feeding mortality than those that fed on methyl eugenol. In field trials, trifluoroanalog I was ~90% less attractive to male B. dorsalis than ME, while difluoroanalog II was ~50% less attractive. These results suggest that increasing fluorination can contribute to fly mortality, but the trade off with attractancy makes it unlikely that either a di or trifluorinated ME would be an improvement over ME for detection and/or eradication of this species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

Chang C.L.,Us Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center | Afuola F.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Li Q.X.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2011

Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E), purchased from a local supermarket in Hawaii, were added to a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a replacement for wheat germ oil in the rearing of fruit fly larvae. The oils were tested on three species of fruit flies in Hawaii, Ceratitis capitata (TSL strain), Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae. They were evaluated for their efficacy in replacing WGO, based on: pupal recovery (%), larval duration (d), pupal weight (mg), adult emergence (%), adult fliers (%), mating (%), egg production per female per day, egg hatch (%), and peak egging period (d). Diets with WGO and without any oil were used as controls. The objective of the study was to select the most cost effective alternative oils with the best performance to replace the currently used WGO, which is pricey and hard to find. The results showed that there was no significant difference in performance among the tested oils in B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis as regards the above mentioned parameters. Lower mating rate was observed in B. cucurbitae from those reared in vegetable oil and canola oil (10% vitamin E) diet. Lower egg production and egg hatch were obtained with B. dorsalis whose larvae were reared in vegetable and canola oil (both 10% and 20% vitamin E). Vegetable oil diet seemed to reduce pupal weight, shorten larval duration, and increase pupal recovery of C. capitata. The results suggest that WGO can be substituted with corn oil, vegetable oil, or canola oils for B. cucurbitae, while corn oil is a better alternative for B. dorsalis, and vegetable oil is best for C. capitata. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.

Chang C.L.,Us Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center | Cho I.K.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Li Q.X.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2012

Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuron. No significant mortality of laboratory strains of the first three species was observed after their exposure up to 50 μg/mL of lufenuron in agar adult diet, whereas B. latifrons adults fed with 50 μg/mL of lufenuron in the diet caused significant mortality compared to the control. Fertility of C. capitata adults fed on 50 μg/mL lufenuron-fortified diet between 7 and 12. days of age was approximately 46% of the no lufenuron control. Fertility of B. dorsalis and B. latifrons adults fed on 50 μg/mL lufenuron-incorporated diet was about 45% and 62% of the control, respectively. Lufenuron did not significantly affect fertility of B. cucurbitae adults. Lufenuron did not affect fecundity of C. capitata and B. dorsalis. Fecundity of B. cucurbitae and B. latifrons was not evaluated due to difficulty to count the eggs laid deep in the agar diet. Larvae fed on a liquid larval diet with ≤ 0.1 μg/mL of lufenuron were also evaluated. Pupal recovery, adult emergence, adult fliers, mating, egg hatch, and egg production of C. capitata were significantly decreased, while for B. dorsalis, pupal recovery, larval duration and adult emergence were affected. No effect of lufenuron on B. cucurbitae larvae was observed. B. latifrons was not performed because shortage of eggs at the time of this research. Lufenuron is a potential agent for management and control of C. capitata and B. dorsalis. © 2011 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.

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