Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp

Bethesda, MD, United States

Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp

Bethesda, MD, United States

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PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. National Institutes of Health, Paxvax, Inc., U.S. Food and Drug Administration and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2014

Recombinant viral vectors provide an effective means for heterologous antigen expression in vivo and thus represent promising platforms for developing novel vaccines against human pathogens from Ebola to tuberculosis. An increasing number of candidate viral vector vaccines are entering human clinical trials. The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to improve our ability to anticipate potential safety issues and meaningfully assess or interpret safety data, thereby facilitating greater public acceptance when licensed.


Monath T.P.,Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers | Monath T.P.,Paxvax, Inc. | Monath T.P.,Hookipa Biotech | Seligman S.J.,New York Medical College | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. © 2014.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. National Institutes of Health, Paxvax, Inc., University of Florida and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

In 2003 and 2013, the World Health Organization convened informal consultations on characterization and quality aspects of vaccines based on live virus vectors. In the resulting reports, one of several issues raised for future study was the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. This paper presents an assessment of this issue formulated by the Brighton Collaboration. To provide an appropriate context for understanding the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines, we review briefly the current status of virus-vectored vaccines, mechanisms of recombination between viruses, experience with recombination involving live attenuated vaccines in the field, and concerns raised previously in the literature regarding recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type virus strains. We then present a discussion of the major variables that could influence recombination between a virus-vectored vaccine and circulating wild type virus and the consequences of such recombination, including intrinsic recombination properties of the parent virus used as a vector; sequence relatedness of vector and wild virus; virus host range, pathogenesis and transmission; replication competency of vector in target host; mechanism of vector attenuation; additional factors potentially affecting virulence; and circulation of multiple recombinant vectors in the same target population. Finally, we present some guiding principles for vector design and testing intended to anticipate and mitigate the potential for and consequences of recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains.


Nitayaphan S.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Ngauy V.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | O'Connell R.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Excler J.-L.,Foundation Medicine
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2012

The recent evidence in Thailand for protection from acquisition of HIV through vaccination in a mostly heterosexual population has generated considerable hope. Building upon these results and the analysis of the correlates of risk remains among the highest priorities. Improved vaccine concepts including heterologous prime-boost regimens, improved proteins with potent adjuvants and new vectors expressing mosaic antigens may soon enter clinical development to assess vaccine efficacy in men who have sex with men. Identifying heterosexual populations with sufficient HIV incidence for the conduct of efficacy trials represents perhaps the main challenge in Asia. Fostering translational research efforts in Asian countries may benefit from the development of master strategic plans and program management processes. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.


O'Connell R.J.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Kim J.H.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Excler J.-L.,Foundation Medicine
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2014

Although the second variable loop (V2) of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein shows substantial sequence diversity between strains, its functional importance imposes critical conservation of structure, and within particular microdomains, of sequence. V2 influences HIV-1 viral entry by contributing to trimer stabilization and co-receptor binding. It is one of 4 key domains targeted by the broadly neutralizing antibodies that arise during HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 uses V1V2 sequence variation and glycosylation to escape neutralizing antibody. In the Thai Phase III HIV-1 vaccine trial, RV144, vaccine-induced IgG against V1V2 inversely correlated with the risk of HIV-1 acquisition, and HIV-1 strains infecting RV144 vaccine recipients differed from those infecting placebo recipients in the V2 domain. Similarly, non-human primate challenge studies demonstrated an inverse correlation between vaccine-induced anti-V2 responses and simian immunodeficiency virus acquisition. We hypothesize that increased magnitude, frequency and duration of vaccine-induced anti-V2 antibody responses should improve efficacy afforded by pox-protein prime-boost HIV vaccine strategies. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


PubMed | Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS, Us Component Armed Forces Research Institute Of Medical Science Afrims, Ministry of Public Health, EMMES Corporation and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

RV144 was a community-based HIV vaccine efficacy trial conducted in HIV-uninfected adults in Thailand, where dengue virus continues to cause a large number of infections every year. We attempted to document the accuracy of clinically diagnosed dengue episodes reported as serious adverse events (SAEs) and adverse events (AEs) and examine whether dengue serology would support the clinical diagnosis. Subjects without a clinical dengue diagnosis but with an infection or idiopathic fever were selected as a control population. Dengue serology was performed by hemagglutination inhibition on plasma samples. A total of 124 clinical dengue episodes were reported (103 SAEs and 21 AEs). Overall 82.6% of the clinically diagnosed dengue episodes were supported by a positive dengue serology: 71.4% of the AEs and 85.0% of the SAEs. Of the 100 subjects with both clinical dengue and positive serology, all presented with fever, 83% with leucopenia, 54% with thrombocytopenia, and 27% with hemorrhagic symptoms. All episodes resolved spontaneously without sequellae. Only two of 15 subjects with a negative serology presented with fever. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical dengue diagnosis were 90.9% and 74.4%, respectively, when compared to the control population, and with a positive predictive value of 82.6% and negative predictive value of 84.7% when compared to dengue serology. Clinical diagnosis of dengue is an accurate method of dengue diagnosis in adults in Thailand. Large-scale clinical trials offer the opportunity to systematically study infectious diseases such as dengue and other infections that may occur during the trial.


Kim J.H.,U.S. Army | Rerks-Ngarm S.,Ministry of Public Health | Excler J.-L.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Michael N.L.,U.S. Army
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: An effective HIV vaccine is a global health priority. We describe lessons learned from four HIV vaccine trials that failed to demonstrate efficacy and one that showed modest protection as a pathway forward. Recent Findings: The Merck Ad5 phase IIb T-cell vaccine failed to show efficacy and might have increased the risk of HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. Although VaxGen gp120 alone was not efficacious in groups at high risk for HIV-1 infection, the RV144 ALVAC prime and gp120 boost regimen showed 31% efficacy in low-incidence heterosexuals. All trials demonstrated the limitations of available laboratory and animal models to assess relevant vaccine-induced immune responses and predict clinical trial outcome. Analysis of innate and adaptive responses induced in RV144 will guide future trial design. Summary: Future HIV vaccine trials should define the RV144 immune responses relevant to protection, improve durability and level of protection, and assess efficacy in diverse risk groups. New strategies examining heterologous vector prime-boost, universal inserts, replicating vectors, and novel protein or adjuvant immunogens should be explored to induce T-cell and antibody responses. HIV vaccine development requires innovative ideas and a sustained long-term commitment of scientists, governments, and the community. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Excler J.-L.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Tomaras G.D.,Duke Human Vaccine Institute | Tomaras G.D.,Duke University | Russell N.D.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: Considerable HIV-1 vaccine development efforts have been deployed over the past decade. Put into perspective, the results from efficacy trials and the identification of correlates of risk have opened large and unforeseen avenues for vaccine development. Recent Findings: The Thai efficacy trial, RV144, provided the first evidence that HIV-1 vaccine protection against HIV-1 acquisition could be achieved. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop inversely correlated with a decreased risk of infection, whereas Env-specific IgA directly correlated with risk. Further clinical trials will focus on testing new envelope subunit proteins formulated with adjuvants capable of inducing higher and more durable functional antibody responses (both binding and broadly neutralizing antibodies). Moreover, vector-based vaccine regimens that can induce cell-mediated immune responses in addition to humoral responses remain a priority. Summary: Future efficacy trials will focus on prevention of HIV-1 transmission in heterosexual population in Africa and MSM in Asia. The recent successes leading to novel directions in HIV-1 vaccine development are a result of collaboration and commitment among vaccine manufacturers, funders, scientists and civil society stakeholders. Sustained and broad collaborative efforts are required to advance new vaccine strategies for higher levels of efficacy. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2013

Considerable HIV-1 vaccine development efforts have been deployed over the past decade. Put into perspective, the results from efficacy trials and the identification of correlates of risk have opened large and unforeseen avenues for vaccine development.The Thai efficacy trial, RV144, provided the first evidence that HIV-1 vaccine protection against HIV-1 acquisition could be achieved. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop inversely correlated with a decreased risk of infection, whereas Env-specific IgA directly correlated with risk. Further clinical trials will focus on testing new envelope subunit proteins formulated with adjuvants capable of inducing higher and more durable functional antibody responses (both binding and broadly neutralizing antibodies). Moreover, vector-based vaccine regimens that can induce cell-mediated immune responses in addition to humoral responses remain a priority.Future efficacy trials will focus on prevention of HIV-1 transmission in heterosexual population in Africa and MSM in Asia. The recent successes leading to novel directions in HIV-1 vaccine development are a result of collaboration and commitment among vaccine manufacturers, funders, scientists and civil society stakeholders. Sustained and broad collaborative efforts are required to advance new vaccine strategies for higher levels of efficacy.


PubMed | Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current HIV research | Year: 2014

Although immune correlates of protection for HIV vaccines have remained an intractable question, RV144 provided the first evidence that an HIV vaccine could provide protective efficacy against HIV acquisition. The study of correlates of risk has opened large and unforeseen avenues of exploration and hope for the most exciting time of HIV vaccine development. Several elements in the RV144 post-hoc analysis and recent macaque challenge studies suggest that antibodies directed against the V2 loop of gp120 are functional and may have played a protective role against virus acquisition. Several protective mechanisms against sexual transmission of HIV are evoked including blocking the gp120- 47 interaction and ADCC although possibly mitigated by high levels of Env-specific IgA, both mechanisms contributing at least partially to the protective effect. Several questions remain unanswered that will deserve intensive assessments, in particular, IgG and IgA Env antibodies in mucosal secretions, Env-specific IgG subclasses, cross-reaction of V2 antibodies, role of T-follicular helper cells, and B-cell memory. Whether RV144 correlates of risk are universal and apply at least partially to other populations at higher risk for HIV acquisition and other modes of transmission (rectal, injecting drug users) is unknown and remains to be explored. Future efficacy trials using the same vaccine concept tested in high-risk heterosexual populations and in men having sex with men may answer this question. In addition, the determination of early events in the pathogenesis among HIV-infected vaccine recipients based on current correlates knowledge would offer unprecedented information about correlates biomarkers in the peripheral blood and gut mucosa during early acute HIV infection.

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