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Excler J.-L.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Tomaras G.D.,Duke Human Vaccine Institute | Tomaras G.D.,Duke University | Russell N.D.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: Considerable HIV-1 vaccine development efforts have been deployed over the past decade. Put into perspective, the results from efficacy trials and the identification of correlates of risk have opened large and unforeseen avenues for vaccine development. Recent Findings: The Thai efficacy trial, RV144, provided the first evidence that HIV-1 vaccine protection against HIV-1 acquisition could be achieved. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop inversely correlated with a decreased risk of infection, whereas Env-specific IgA directly correlated with risk. Further clinical trials will focus on testing new envelope subunit proteins formulated with adjuvants capable of inducing higher and more durable functional antibody responses (both binding and broadly neutralizing antibodies). Moreover, vector-based vaccine regimens that can induce cell-mediated immune responses in addition to humoral responses remain a priority. Summary: Future efficacy trials will focus on prevention of HIV-1 transmission in heterosexual population in Africa and MSM in Asia. The recent successes leading to novel directions in HIV-1 vaccine development are a result of collaboration and commitment among vaccine manufacturers, funders, scientists and civil society stakeholders. Sustained and broad collaborative efforts are required to advance new vaccine strategies for higher levels of efficacy. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Kim J.H.,U.S. Army | Rerks-Ngarm S.,Ministry of Public Health | Excler J.-L.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Michael N.L.,U.S. Army
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: An effective HIV vaccine is a global health priority. We describe lessons learned from four HIV vaccine trials that failed to demonstrate efficacy and one that showed modest protection as a pathway forward. Recent Findings: The Merck Ad5 phase IIb T-cell vaccine failed to show efficacy and might have increased the risk of HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. Although VaxGen gp120 alone was not efficacious in groups at high risk for HIV-1 infection, the RV144 ALVAC prime and gp120 boost regimen showed 31% efficacy in low-incidence heterosexuals. All trials demonstrated the limitations of available laboratory and animal models to assess relevant vaccine-induced immune responses and predict clinical trial outcome. Analysis of innate and adaptive responses induced in RV144 will guide future trial design. Summary: Future HIV vaccine trials should define the RV144 immune responses relevant to protection, improve durability and level of protection, and assess efficacy in diverse risk groups. New strategies examining heterologous vector prime-boost, universal inserts, replicating vectors, and novel protein or adjuvant immunogens should be explored to induce T-cell and antibody responses. HIV vaccine development requires innovative ideas and a sustained long-term commitment of scientists, governments, and the community. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Nitayaphan S.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Ngauy V.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | O'Connell R.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Excler J.-L.,Foundation Medicine
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2012

The recent evidence in Thailand for protection from acquisition of HIV through vaccination in a mostly heterosexual population has generated considerable hope. Building upon these results and the analysis of the correlates of risk remains among the highest priorities. Improved vaccine concepts including heterologous prime-boost regimens, improved proteins with potent adjuvants and new vectors expressing mosaic antigens may soon enter clinical development to assess vaccine efficacy in men who have sex with men. Identifying heterosexual populations with sufficient HIV incidence for the conduct of efficacy trials represents perhaps the main challenge in Asia. Fostering translational research efforts in Asian countries may benefit from the development of master strategic plans and program management processes. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source


O'Connell R.J.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Kim J.H.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Excler J.-L.,Foundation Medicine
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2014

Although the second variable loop (V2) of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein shows substantial sequence diversity between strains, its functional importance imposes critical conservation of structure, and within particular microdomains, of sequence. V2 influences HIV-1 viral entry by contributing to trimer stabilization and co-receptor binding. It is one of 4 key domains targeted by the broadly neutralizing antibodies that arise during HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 uses V1V2 sequence variation and glycosylation to escape neutralizing antibody. In the Thai Phase III HIV-1 vaccine trial, RV144, vaccine-induced IgG against V1V2 inversely correlated with the risk of HIV-1 acquisition, and HIV-1 strains infecting RV144 vaccine recipients differed from those infecting placebo recipients in the V2 domain. Similarly, non-human primate challenge studies demonstrated an inverse correlation between vaccine-induced anti-V2 responses and simian immunodeficiency virus acquisition. We hypothesize that increased magnitude, frequency and duration of vaccine-induced anti-V2 antibody responses should improve efficacy afforded by pox-protein prime-boost HIV vaccine strategies. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Monath T.P.,Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers | Monath T.P.,Paxvax, Inc. | Monath T.P.,Hookipa Biotech | Seligman S.J.,New York Medical College | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. © 2014. Source

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