Deemer B.R.,Washington State University |
Harrison J.A.,Washington State University |
Li S.,CAS Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology |
Beaulieu J.J.,Us Environmental Protection Agencys Office Of Research And Development |
And 7 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2016
Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, and manage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistencies in methodological approach. Here, we synthesize reservoir CH4, CO2, and N2O emission data with three main objectives: (1) to generate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the best predictors of these emissions, and (3) to consider the effect of methodology on emission estimates. We estimate that GHG emissions from reservoir water surfaces account for 0.8 (0.5-1.2) Pg CO2 equivalents per year, with the majority of this forcing due to CH4. We then discuss the potential for several alternative pathways such as dam degassing and downstream emissions to contribute significantly to overall emissions. Although prior studies have linked reservoir GHG emissions to reservoir age and latitude, we find that factors related to reservoir productivity are better predictors of emission.
Wickham J.,Us Environmental Protection Agencys Office Of Research And Development |
Wood P.B.,West Virginia University |
Nicholson M.C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Jenkins W.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
And 6 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2013
Ecological research on mountaintop mining has been focused on aquatic impacts because the overburden (i.e., the mountaintop) is disposed of in nearby valleys, which leads to a wide range of water-quality impacts on streams. There are also numerous impacts on the terrestrial environment from mountaintop mining that have been largely overlooked, even though they are no less wide ranging, severe, and multifaceted. We review the impacts of mountaintop mining on the terrestrial environment by exploring six broad themes: (1) the loss of topographic complexity, (2) forest loss and fragmentation, (3) forest succession and soil loss, (4) forest loss and carbon sequestration, (5) biodiversity, and (6) human health and well-being. © 2013 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.