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Harburg, Germany

The prognosis of prostate and bladder cancer patients is predominantly determined by the detection of distantsites of metastasis. In clinical routine, virtually only lymphnode staging is of relevance to determine metastasis. Detection and characterization of disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow is an additional parameter of prognostic significance. In this article, we will summarize recent progress on the prognostic value of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and its translation into routine clinical analysis. © Springer-Verlag 2014.

Bader P.,Urologische Klinik
Urologe - Ausgabe A | Year: 2012

With increasing experience and availability of the da Vinci® robotic surgery system there has been an extension of the indications from initially exclusively ablative interventions, such as nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy to reconstructive interventions, such as pyeloplasty, bladder augmentation and urinary diversion. Laparocopic pyeloplasty has been established for both adults and children, with results comparable to the open procedure. In comparison the conventional laparoscopic procedure is little cost-intensive and therefore widely used. The available literature has to be analysed to find advantages for the cost-intensive, robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty from which patients can profit. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Wolff J.M.,Urologische Klinik | Schmid H.P.,Kantonsspital St. Gallen
Urologe | Year: 2015

Background Among all cancer types, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer and is the third-leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The biologic function of the prostate is decisively influenced by testosterone and its metabolic product dihydrotestosterone. However, there is general uncertainty about the role of testosterone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For many years, the androgen hypothesis had been accepted to explain the correlation between testosterone levels and the development or progression of PCa. However, extensive study analyses revealed contradictory results, leading to a reconsideration of the androgen hypothesis. High serum testosterone levels do not predispose to PCa development and low serum testosterone levels are not protective. The importance of testosterone levels in patients with mCRPC has been shown in several registration studies with new drugs, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. There is growing evidence suggesting a prognostic role of testosterone levels in mCRPC. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Background: The aim of urodynamic testing is to obtain objective information regarding urinary bladder storage and voiding function. Basic investigations provide information of the underlying incontinence form. Depending on the individual situation and findings, further urodynamic investigations are helpful or indicated. Prior to conservative therapy, a routine urodynamic investigation is not indicated. Objectives: Due to limited evidence of preoperative urodynamic investigations on postoperative results, the urodynamic results may be helpful when considering various treatment options. Results: Urodynamic investigations should be performed preoperatively, especially in case of overactive bladder symptoms, prior incontinence surgery, or disordered bladder emptying. The assessment of urethral function should be considered in the urodynamic investigation of stress urinary incontinence. In patients with pelvic prolapse, urodynamic investigations should be performed during prolapse reposition. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Henry II (1519-1559) of France was the second son of Francis I (1494-1547) and Claude de France (1498-1524) born in 1519 in St. Germain-en-Laye. After his older brother's and his father's death in 1547, he was anointed the French king in Reims. In 1533 already, as a 14-year-old boy, for reasons of state, he was married to the same aged Catherine de Medici (1519-1589), as her uncle was Pope Clement VII (1478-1534). The marriage remained childless for 11 years since Henry, due to a distinct hypospadia and a completely sexually inexperienced wife was unable to conceive children with her. His existing liaison to Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) - a 19-year-older maid of honor of his father Francis I from 1537 until his death - influenced his sexual life immensely.The blame for the childless marriage was placed primarily on his wife, as Henry had become father of an illegitimate daughter with a mistress. Catherine then underwent all possible medical and alchemical procedures to finally give birth to the hoped Dauphin. Ironically, her rival for the favor of her husband, Diane de Poitiers was one of her greatest allies. She made clear that the cause lay with Henry and not with his wife. This was confirmed by the added solid physician Jean Fernel (1497-1558). His treatment of Henry and the simultaneous training of the unexperienced Catherine by Diane de Poitiers led to success.The result was the birth of Francis II (1544-1560) in 1544, the first of 10 children in 12 years. Thus, the dynasty was saved. After the death of Henry in a tragic tournament accident in 1559, three of his sons became kings of France. But the line of Valois remained without further descendants and was continued by Henry IV, the first Bourbon king in 1589.

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