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Gandhi D.,Columbia University | Molotkov A.,Columbia University | Batourina E.,Columbia University | Schneider K.,Columbia University | And 17 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2013

The urothelium is a multilayered epithelium that serves as a barrier between the urinary tract and blood, preventing the exchange of water and toxic substances. It consists of superficial cells specialized for synthesis and transport of uroplakins that assemble into a tough apical plaque, one or more layers of intermediate cells, and keratin 5-expressing basal cells (K5-BCs), which are considered to be progenitors in the urothelium and other specialized epithelia. Fate mapping, however, reveals that intermediate cells rather than K5-BCs are progenitors in the adult regenerating urothelium, that P cells, a transient population, are progenitors in the embryo, and that retinoids are critical in P cells and intermediate cells, respectively, for their specification during development and regeneration. These observations have important implications for tissue engineering and repair and, ultimately, may lead to treatments that prevent loss of the urothelial barrier, a major cause of voiding dysfunction and bladder pain syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sun Y.,Urological Diseases Research Center | Sun Y.,Harvard University | Kaneko S.,Urological Diseases Research Center | Kaneko S.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Eyes absent 1 (Eya1) is a conserved critical regulator of organ-specific stem cells. Ectopic Eya1 activities, however, promote transformation of mammary epithelial cells. Signals that instigate Eya1 oncogenic activities remain to be determined. Here, we show that Akt1 kinase physically interacts with Eya1 and phosphorylates a conserved consensus site of the Akt kinase. PI3K/Akt signaling enhances Eya1 transcription activity, which largely attributes to the phosphorylation-induced reduction of Eya1 SUMOylation. Indeed, SUMOylation inhibits Eya1 transcription activity; and pharmacologic and genetic activation of PI3K/Akt robustly reduces Eya1 SUMOylation. Wild-type but not Akt phosphorylation site mutant Eya1 variant rescues the cell migratory phenotype of EYA1-silenced breast cancer cells, highlighting the importance of Eya1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, knockdown EYA1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to the PI3K/Akt1 inhibitor and irradiation treatments. Thus, the PI3K/Akt signal pathway activates Eya1. These findings further suggest that regulation of SUMOylation by PI3K/Akt signaling is likely an important aspect of tumorigenesis. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Dowal L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Yang W.,Urological Diseases Research Center | Yang W.,Harvard University | Yang W.,Proteomics Center | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Protein palmitoylation is a dynamic process that regulates membrane targeting of proteins and protein-protein interactions. We have previously demonstrated a critical role for protein palmitoylation in platelet activation and have identified palmitoylation machinery in platelets. Using a novel proteomic approach, Palmitoyl Protein Identification and Site Characterization, we have begun to characterize the human platelet palmitoylome. Palmitoylated proteins were enriched from membranes isolated from resting platelets using acyl-biotinyl exchange chemistry, followed by identification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This global analysis identified > 1300 proteins, of which 215 met criteria for significance and represent the platelet palmitoylome. This collection includes 51 known palmitoylated proteins, 61 putative palmitoylated proteins identified in other palmitoylationspecific proteomic studies, and 103 new putative palmitoylated proteins. Of these candidates, we chose to validate the palmitoylation of triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cell (TREM)-like transcript-1 (TLT-1) as its expression is restricted to platelets and megakaryocytes. We determined that TLT-1 is a palmitoylated protein using metabolic labeling with [ 3H]palmitate and identified the site of TLT-1 palmitoylation as cysteine 196. The discovery of new platelet palmitoyl protein candidates will provide a resource for subsequent investigations to validate the palmitoylation of these proteins and to determine the role palmitoylation plays in their function. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Peleg S.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Sellin J.H.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Wang Y.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Freeman M.R.,Urological Diseases Research Center | Umar S.,University of Texas Medical Branch
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2010

Dietary calcium is believed to reduce colon cancer risk, but the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. Employing the Citrobacter rodentium-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model, we previously showed that a high-calcium diet (hCa) significantly abrogated hyperplasia in the distal colons of NIH-Swiss mice. Here, we explored the mechanism of dietary protection by hCa by analyzing the expression of genes involved in the regulation of Ca uptake/flux in the intestinal epithelium, including the Ca-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor, Ca binding protein, and transient receptor potential cation channels, subfamily V, members 5 and 6 (TRPV5/6). Interestingly, while TRPV6 expression increased significantly during TMCH, the expression of the other gene products was unchanged. This elevated TRPV6 expression was significantly abrogated by a hCa diet. Immunofluorescence revealed apical membrane localization of TRPV6 in the normal colon, whereas during TMCH we observed intense apical pole and cytoplasmic staining along the entire longitudinal crypt axis, including the expanded proliferating zone. The hCa diet reversed this effect. In humans, overexpression of TRPV6 was associated with early-stage colon cancer, and in colon carcinoma cells, inhibition of TRPV6 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited their proliferation and induced apoptosis. TRPV6 small interfering RNA also diminished the transcriptional activity of the calcium-dependent nuclear factors in activated T cells. Thus the aberrant overexpression of TRPV6 contributes to colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice and to colon cancer cell proliferation in humans. Therefore, it is likely that suppression of TRPV6 by a hCa diet is required for its protective effects in the colon. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Delgado-Olguin P.,Gladstone | Huang Y.,Gladstone | Huang Y.,Harvard University | Li X.,Urological Diseases Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

Adult-onset diseases can be associated with in utero events, but mechanisms for this remain unknown. The Polycomb histone methyltransferase Ezh2 stabilizes transcription by depositing repressive marks during development that persist into adulthood, but its function in postnatal organ homeostasis is unknown. We show that Ezh2 stabilizes cardiac gene expression and prevents cardiac pathology by repressing the homeodomain transcription factor gene Six1, which functions in cardiac progenitor cells but is stably silenced upon cardiac differentiation. Deletion of Ezh2 in cardiac progenitors caused postnatal myocardial pathology and destabilized cardiac gene expression with activation of Six1-dependent skeletal muscle genes. Six1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and skeletal muscle gene expression. Furthermore, genetically reducing Six1 levels rescued the pathology of Ezh2-deficient hearts. Thus, Ezh2-mediated repression of Six1 in differentiating cardiac progenitors is essential for stable gene expression and homeostasis in the postnatal heart. Our results suggest that epigenetic dysregulation in embryonic progenitor cells is a predisposing factor for adult disease and dysregulated stress responses. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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