Urogenix Incorporated

Durham, NC, United States

Urogenix Incorporated

Durham, NC, United States
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Fry C.H.,University of Surrey | Daneshgari F.,Case Western Reserve University | Thor K.,Urogenix Inc. | Drake M.,Southmead Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2010

This review will highlight appropriate animal models for the study of a number of disorders involving changes to lower urinary tract function. A major hurdle to the development of animal models for human lower urinary tract disorders is that the clinical pathophysiology of the latter mostly remain idiopathic. Acute injury/inflammation of otherwise healthy animals has often been used to study effects on a target tissue/organ. However, these "acute" models may not adequately address the characteristics of "chronic" visceral disorders. In addition, the relevance of observed changes following acute injury/inflammation, in terms of possible therapeutic targets, may not reflect that which occurs in the human condition. We have therefore emphasized the situations when animal models are required to investigate lower urinary tract disorders and what they should set out to achieve. In particular we have discussed the merits and disadvantages of a number of paradigms that set out to investigate specific lower urinary tract disorders or situations associated with these conditions. These include animal models of overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, ageing and congenital defects of the urinary tract and bladder pain syndrome. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:603-608, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Thor K.B.,Urogenix Inc. | De Groat W.C.,University of Pittsburgh
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2010

The urethral rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles are important in maintenance of urinary continence and in preventing descent of pelvic organs [i.e., pelvic organ prolapse (POP)]. Despite its clinical importance and complexity, a comprehensive review of neural control of the rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles is lacking. The present review places historical and recent basic science findings on neural control into the context of functional anatomy of the pelvic muscles and their coordination with visceral function and correlates basic science findings with clinical findings when possible. This review briefly describes the striated muscles of the pelvis and then provides details on the peripheral innervation and, in particular, the contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the function of the various pelvic muscles. The locations and unique phenotypic characteristics of rhabdosphincter motor neurons located in Onuf's nucleus, and levator ani motor neurons located diffusely in the sacral ventral horn, are provided along with the locations and phenotypes of primary afferent neurons that convey sensory information from these muscles. Spinal and supraspinal pathways mediating excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the motor neurons are described; the relative contributions of the nerves to urethral function and their involvement in POP and incontinence are discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of the neurochemical anatomy of Onuf's nucleus and the pharmacological control of the rhabdosphincter are provided. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Ishigami T.,Astellas Pharma Inc. | Yoshioka K.,Astellas Pharma Inc. | Karicheti V.,Urogenix Inc. | Marson L.,Urogenix Inc.
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction: The urethrogenital reflex (UGR) is used as a physiological animal model of the autonomic and somatic activity that accompanies ejaculatory-like reflexes (ELRs). Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in regulating ejaculation. Aim: To examine the effects of intraurethral 5-HT on ELRs and to examine the effects of various 5-HT receptor subtypes on the 5-HT-induced changes in the ELRs. Methods: The effects of intraurethral infusion of 5-HT on ELRs were examined by monitoring the urethrogenital reflex in male rats. The effects of various 5-HT receptor-specific antagonists on the 5-HT-induced responses were examined. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures were urethral pressure threshold required to elicit the UGR and bulbospongiosus activity or ELRs. Results: Intraurethral infusion of 5-HT (10-1,000μM) produced a dose-dependent facilitation of the UGR, i.e., decrease in threshold urethral perfusion pressure and an increase in number of ELRs. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists tropisetron (1 and 3mg/kg, i.v.) and ramosetron (0.1 and 1mg/kg, i.v.), the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (3mg/kg, i.v.), and the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (1mg/kg, i.v.) all failed to inhibit 5-HT-induced facilitation of the UGR. However, ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.v.), a nonselective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, and xylamidine (0.01-1mg/kg, i.v.), a peripherally restricted nonselective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited both the decrease in urethral pressure threshold and the increase in number of ELRs induced by intraurethral infusion of 5-HT. Conclusion: These results suggest that in the male rat urethra, peripheral 5-HT2 receptors are involved in the 5-HT-induced facilitation of the expulsion phase of ejaculation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Langdale C.L.,Urogenix Inc. | Thor K.B.,Urogenix Inc. | Marson L.,Urogenix Inc. | Burgard E.C.,Urogenix Inc.
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical | Year: 2014

Neuropathy and cystopathy are two common conditions in patients with chronic diabetes. Despite obvious bladder sensory and motor nerve dysfunction in diabetes, no studies have selectively explored whether sensory or motor innervation is affected in the bladder. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that loss of bladder sensory and motor fibers is responsible for bladder sensory and motor dysfunction. Parasympathetic and sensory innervation of the bladder dome and neck were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and stereology in adult female rats 12. weeks after induction of diabetes by streptozotocin. Naïve and age matched rats were evaluated as controls. Diabetic rats had mean blood glucose level of >. 400. mg/dl, and bladder weights and thicknesses that were more than doubled compared to naïve rats. In naïve rats, parasympathetic vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAT) and sensory calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunopositive nerve fibers were located in bladder smooth muscle and were more densely distributed in the neck compared to the dome. Within the urothelial region, CGRP nerve fibers were densely distributed while VAT nerve fibers were sparsely distributed in the bladder neck and both were virtually absent in the bladder dome. Streptozotocin induced diabetes did not change the total nerve fiber length of either VAT or CGRP stained fibers in either the neck or dome. These studies indicate that hyperglycemia, induced by streptozotocin treatment, does not result in a loss of parasympathetic VAT or CGRP sensory nerve fibers, per se, but the doubling of bladder weight and mass does indicate a decrease in innervation density. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..

Limberg B.J.,Procter and Gamble | Andersson K.-E.,Wake forest University | Aura Kullmann F.,University of Pittsburgh | Aura Kullmann F.,Urogenix Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2010

β 3-Adrenergic receptor agonists are currently under clinical development for the treatment of overactive bladder, a condition that is prevalent in postmenopausal women. These agents purportedly relax bladder smooth muscle through a direct action at the myocyte β 3- receptor. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the individual beta-adrenergic receptors in full thickness sections from ageing human female bladder. We obtained a series of rabbit polyclonal antibodies generated against each of the three β-adrenergic receptors, and validated their receptor specificity in CHOK1 cells expressing each of the individual receptors. Immunostaining for β 1, β 2, and β 3 were each more prominent in the urothelium than in the detrusor, with all receptors expressed in the same cell types, indicating co-expression of all three receptors throughout the urothelium in addition to the detrusor. Staining of all receptors was also observed in suburothelial myofibroblast-like cells, intramural ganglion cells, and in Schwann cells of intramural nerves. The β 3-receptor in the human urothelium appears to be functional, as two different selective β 3-receptor agonists, TAK677 and BRL37344, stimulate cAMP formation in UROtsa cells. Densitometry analysis indicates a persistent expression of all receptors throughout the bladder with increasing age, with the exception of the β 2-receptor in the urothelium of the trigone, which appears to decrease slightly in older women. These data indicate that β 3- receptor expression is maintained with age, but may function in concert with other β-receptors. Activation of the myocyte receptor may be influenced by action on non-myocyte structures including the intramural ganglion cells and myofibroblasts. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Tanahashi M.,Astellas Pharma Incorporated | Karicheti V.,Urogenix Incorporated | Thor K.B.,Urogenix Incorporated | Marson L.,Urogenix Incorporated
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2012

The urethrogenital reflex (UGR) is used as a surrogate model of the autonomic and somatic nerve and muscle activity that accompanies ejaculation. The UGR is evoked by distension of the urethra and activation of penile afferents. The current study compares two methods of elevating urethral intraluminal pressure in spinalized, anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60). The first method, penile extension UGR, involves extracting the penis from the foreskin, so that urethral pressure rises due to a natural anatomical flexure in the penis. The second method, penile clamping UGR, involves penile extension UGR with the addition of clamping of the glans penis. Groups of animals were prepared that either received no additional treatment, surgical shams, or received bilateral nerve cuts (4 nerve cut groups): either the pudendal sensory nerve branch (SbPN), the pelvic nerves, the hypogastric nerves, or all three nerves. Penile clamping UGR was characterized by multiple bursts, monitored by electromyography (EMG) of the bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM) accompanied by elevations in urethral pressure. The penile clamping UGR activity declined across multiple trials and eventually resulted in only a single BSM burst, indicating desensitization. In contrast, the penile extension UGR, without penile clamping, evoked only a single BSM EMG burst that showed no desensitization. Thus, the UGR is composed of two BSM patterns: an initial single burst, termed urethrobulbospongiosus (UBS) reflex and a subsequent multiple bursting pattern (termed ejaculation-like response, ELR) that was only induced with penile clamping urethral occlusion. Transection of the SbPN eliminated the ELR in the penile clamping model, but the single UBS reflex remained in both the clamping and extension models. Pelvic nerve (PelN) transection increased the threshold for inducing BSM activation with both methods of occlusion but actually unmasked an ELR in the penile extension method. Hypogastric nerve (HgN) cuts did not significantly alter any parameter. Transection of all three nerves eliminated BSM activation completely. In conclusion, penile clamping occlusion recruits penile and urethral primary afferent fibers that are necessary for an ELR. Urethral distension without significant penile afferent activation recruits urethral primary afferent fibers carried in either the pelvic or pudendal nerve that are necessary for the single-burst UBS reflex. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Best T.K.,Urogenix Inc. | Marson L.,Urogenix Inc. | Thor K.B.,Urogenix Inc. | Burgard E.C.,Urogenix Inc.
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2013

Ejaculation is controlled by coordinated and rhythmic contractions of bulbospongiosus (BSM) and ischiocav-ernosus muscles. Motoneurons that innervate and control BSM contractions are located in the dorsomedial portion of the ventral horn in the L5-6 spinal cord termed the dorsomedial (DM) nucleus. We characterized intrinsic properties of DM motoneurons as well as synaptic inputs from the dorsal gray commissure (DGC). Electrical stimulation of DGC fibers elicited fast inhibitory and excitatory responses. In the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, both fast GABAergic as well as glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were recorded. No slow GABAB-mediated inhibition was evident. In the presence of GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists, DGC stimulation elicited fast glutamatergic excitatory responses that were blocked by application of CNQX. Importantly, a slow depolarization (timescale of seconds) was routinely observed that sufficiently depolarized the DM motoneurons to fire "bursts" of action potentials. This slow depolarization was elicited by a range of stimulus train frequencies and was insensitive to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and d-APV). The slow depolarization was accompanied by an increase in membrane resistance with an extrapolated reversal potential near the K+ Nernst potential. It was mediated by the combination of the block of a depolarization-activated K+ current and the activation of a QX-314-sensitive cation current. These results demonstrate that fast synaptic responses in DM motoneurons are mediated primarily by glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors. In addition, slow nonglutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), generated through DGC stimulation, can elicit burstlike responses in these neurons. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Yashiro K.,Urogenix Inc. | Thor K.B.,Urogenix Inc. | Burgard E.C.,Urogenix Inc.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

The urethral rhabdosphincter (URS), commonly known as the external urethral sphincter, facilitates urinary continence by constricting the urethra. Striated muscle fibres in the urethral rhabdosphincter are innervated by Onuf's nuclei motoneurons in the spinal cord. Although noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors are shown to increase URS tone preventing urinary leakage in incontinent patients, whether or how NA affects URS motoneurons is unknown. Properties of dye-labelled URS motoneurons were investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in isolated spinal cord slices prepared from neonatal female rats. As previously shown for adult sphincter motoneurons, neonatal URS motoneurons are more depolarized and possess higher input resistance than other spinal α-motoneurons. These distinct properties make URS motoneurons more excitable than other α-motoneurons. Moreover, bath application of noradrenaline (NA) significantly depolarizes URS motoneurons and in many cases evokes action potentials. NA also significantly increases input resistance and reduces rheobase. These changes are reversed with wash, are largely blocked by the α1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist prazosin, and are mimicked by the α1-adrenoceptor-selective agonist phenylephrine. In addition, NA significantly reduces the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization and increases action potential frequency. Both the increase in action potential frequency and the reduction in afterhyperpolarization are occluded by apamin, a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SKCa) channel blocker. In conclusion, NA effectively increases the excitability of URS motoneurons through multiple mechanisms. The NA-induced increase in excitability of urethral rhabdosphincter motoneurons could be a key mechanism by which NA reuptake inhibitors improve stress urinary incontinence.The urethral rhabdosphincter is a specialized muscle that helps maintain urinary continence by preventing urine leakage from the bladder during events such as coughing, laughing and sneezing. We show that the neurotransmitter noradrenaline has excitatory effects on a specific group of spinal motoneurons that control the activity of this muscle. These findings improve our understanding of the physiological control of urinary continence and may help guide the search for new drug treatments for incontinence. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Physiological Society.

Karicheti V.,Urogenix Inc. | Langdale C.L.,Urogenix Inc. | Ukai M.,Urogenix Inc. | Thor K.B.,Urogenix Inc.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2010

Urine storage is facilitated by somatic (pudendal nerve) and sympathetic [hypogastric nerve (HgN)] reflexes to the urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) and urethral smooth muscle, respectively, initiated by primary afferent fibers in the pelvic nerve (PelN). Inhibition of storage reflexes is required for normal voiding. This study characterizes a urine storage reflex inhibitory network that can be activated by PelN afferent fibers concurrently with the reflexes themselves. Electrical stimulation of PelN produced evoked potentials recorded by URS EMG electrodes (10-ms latency) or HgN electrodes (60-ms latency) in chloralose-anesthetized cats. When a second (i.e., paired) pulse of the same stimulus intensity was applied to the PelN 50-500 ms after the first, the reflexes evoked by the second stimulus were inhibited. The inhibition was maximal at paired-pulse intervals of 50-100 ms and remained after acute spinal transection at T10, confirming that the inhibitory center is located in the spinal cord. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di- npropylamino) tertralin (8-OH-DPAT; 3-300 μg/kg iv) consistently reduced the paired-pulse inhibition from 20% to 60% of control in spinal-intact animals but had no effect in acute spinal animals (i.e., supraspinal site of action). N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl}-N-2- pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate (300 μg/kg iv) completely reversed 8-OH-DPAT's effects. The PelN-HgN reflex paired-pulse inhibition was not affected by 8-OH-DPAT. These results indicate the presence of a spinal, urine storage reflex, inhibitory center (SUSRIC) that is activated within 50 ms after activation of the reflexes themselves. SUSRIC is inhibited (disfacilitated) by supraspinal 5-HT1A receptors. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Birder L.,University of Pittsburgh | De Groat W.,University of Pittsburgh | Mills I.,Pfizer | Morrison J.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2010

This review deals with individual components regulating the neural control of the urinary bladder. This article will focus on factors and processes involved in the two modes of operation of the bladder: storage and elimination. Topics included in this review include: (1) The urothelium and its roles in sensor and transducer functions including interactions with other cell types within the bladder wall (''sensory web''), (2) The location and properties of bladder afferents including factors involved in regulating afferent sensitization, (3) The neural control of the pelvic floor muscle and pharmacology of urethral and anal sphincters (focusing on monoamine pathways), (4) Efferent pathways to the urinary bladder, and (5) Abnormalities in bladder function including mechanisms underlying comorbid disorders associated with bladder pain syndrome and incontinence. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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