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Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center | Sarrafi A.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Amelioration Des Plantes Bap
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2010

Powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.) is an important disease of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in many countries. Losses in yield and quality have been reported to be around 30% to 80% in severe cases. Northwestern Iran is a hotspot for tobacco powdery mildew. To identify resistant genotypes, tobacco germplasm, including recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Basma S.31 × Dubec566, some Iranian landraces, and cultivars from different countries were evaluated under field conditions using a simple lattice design (10×10) with two replications. Each plot comprised 3 rows, 5 meters long. Spacing between rows was 65 cm and between plants within rows 20 cm. Susceptible line (Basma S.31) was planted throughout the experiment to guarantee homogeneous inoculation. The most resistant genotypes were 12 RILs (PD205, PD209, PD379, PD324, PD328, PD329, PD336, PD345, PD364, PD365, PD371, and PD381), three Iranian landraces (SPT413, Jahrom15, and Jahrom12), and cultivars (Basma104-1 and Pobeda1). Three cultivars (Kuklen6, Nevrokop261, and L17), two mutants (Mutant 2 and Mutant 3), and Matianus were included in the resistant group. The more resistant RILs (PD205 and PD209) were evaluated across three years and showed consistent behavior across years. Most genotypes studied were susceptible or highly susceptible to the disease. This information should be helpful in tobacco breeding programs. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Gholizadeh S,Urmia University | Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Abdollahi Mandoulakani B.,Urmia University | Bernousi I.,Urmia University | And 2 more authors.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2012

Characterization of genetic diversity has long been a major goal in tobacco breeding programs. Information on genetic diversity is essential for a rational use of genetic resources. In the present study, the genetic variation among 72 flue-cured tobacco genotypes was evaluated using microsatellite markers (SSRs). A set of 104 alleles was generated at 30 SSR loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (na) and the effective allele number (ne) were 3.467 and 2.358, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.29 to 0.75 with average of 0.54. Several methods were used to construct the similarity matrices and dendrograms. The co-phenetic correlation coefficient, which is a measure of the correlation between the similarities represented on the dendrograms and the actual degree of similarity, was calculated for each dendrogram. Among the different methods, the highest value (r=0.76368) was observed for the UPGMA created based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The genetic similarity among the tobacco genotypes calculated by using Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.08 to 0.84, suggesting the presence of high molecular genetic variability among the studied tobacco genotypes. Based on UPGMA clustering method all studied flue-cured tobacco genotypes, except for 'Glustinusa Rasht', were placed in three distinct groups. We observed an obvious heterotic pattern in the studied flue-cured germplasm corresponding to genetic distances and classification dendrogram, which persuades exploitation of heterosis in flue-cured tobaccos.

Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center | Sarafi A.,Laboratoire Symbiose et Pathologie des Plantes
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2011

In the present study, the accumulation rates of chloride in the leaves of 100 oriental and semi-oriental tobacco genotypes were evaluated in Urmia Tobacco Research Centre (UTRC). Tobacco genotypes were transplanted in a simple square lattice design with two replications. Each plot was comprised of three lines of 5 m, with a spacing of 65 × 20 cm. Harvested tobacco leaves were sun-cured. From each replication, a random sample of 20 leaves was taken and percentage of chlorine was determined, as defined by CORESTA. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the tobacco genotypes for Cl concentration indicating that Cl concentration is genetically controlled in the genotypes tested. The Cl concentration of 100 genotypes ranged from 0.38-2.68%. Tobacco genotypes, showing low Cl concentration together the reference genotype (Basma S. 31) were evaluated once more in UTRC (low Cl soil) and Anghaneh village (high Cl soil) located near to Urmia salty lack. While all selected genotypes except the local variety, 'Basma S. 31', showed again the accumulation rate of chloride less than 1% in UTRC, in Anghaneh village only one genotype, 'SPT 406', presented a value less than 1% chloride in leaves indicating that this genotype has a great value for using in the breeding programmes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Mirzaei L.,Urmia University | Maleki H.H.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Laurentin H.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity and determine differences between several oriental tobacco genotypes by examining both agro-morphological traits and molecular markers. Simple lattice design with two replications was used to evaluate 100 oriental tobacco genotypes. Analysis of variance manifested that there is high level of genetic diversity in oriental-type tobaccos based on morphological traits including number of leaf, days to 50% flowering, leaf length, leaf width, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem height and stem girth. Classification of genotypes using agro-morphological data by means of un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm based on squared standardized Euclidean distances resulted four distinguishable groups that pursuit own geographical distribution. In the molecular marker investigations, a total of 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) primer pairs were used to determine polymorphism of the test germplasm. Thirty five alleles were scored at 13 SSR loci. The average number of alleles per locus (na) and the effective allele number (Ae) were 2.69 and 2.34, respectively. By using SSR data, pair wise Jaccard's similarity coefficients were produced. Grouping of genotypes via Jaccard's similarity coefficients and using UPGMA clustering method lead to three groups that had not any accommodated with own origins. Results reveled that there is not completely agreement for classification based on agro-morphological and SSR loci in oriental-type tobaccos. Because of non influence of environmental effects on molecular marker, heterotic groups based on SSR markers could be closer to reality.

Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011

A high chloride concentration in oriental tobacco leaf has a detrimental effect on tobacco quality and its burning properties. In order to determine the inheritance of chloride concentration in oriental tobacco leaf eight tobacco genotypes showing genetic variability for chloride concentration on the basis of our previous investigation were crossed in a diallel program. Parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids were evaluated in greenhouse experiment using randomized complete block design with three replications. Each replication consisted of two pots (one plant per pot). Cultivation tookplace in plastic plant pots which contained 10 kg soil from the fields of the northwest Iran where the oriental tobacco type is planted. Standard agrotechnical practices for this tobacco type were applied during growth. Tobacco was harvested when it reached technical maturity then it was sun-cured. Percentage of chloride in cured leaves was determined as defined by CORESTA (Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco, Paris, France). Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of genotypes on chloride concentration and showed significant variability among genotypes for this trait. Diallel analysis showed that general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects for chloride concentration were highly significant indicating that both additive and dominant gene effects were important in controlling the chloride concentration. However, the mean square for specific combining ability was greater than those of general combining ability that shows the predominance of the non-additive genetic effects in controlling the chloride concentration. Therefore, the interpopulational breeding strategy using the heterosis effect could give superior gains to this character. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Bayat M.,Urmia University | Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Soleimani F.,Urmia University | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Genetika | Year: 2014

In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed) at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield.

Morad-beigi L.,Urmia University | Amirnia R.,Urmia University | Tajbakhsh M.,Urmia University | Ramin T.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Life Science Journal | Year: 2012

In order to investigate the possibility of using organic fertilizers in tobacco floating nursery, an experiment was conducted at tobacco research institute of Urmia in 2010. The experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design (CRBD) with four replications. The first factor was disinfected poultry manure, disinfected pigeon manure and a complete fertilizer (NPK) (15-5-30) and the second factor was involved two types of media (100 percent peat and 60 percent animal manure with 40 percent perlite). The results showed that highest and lowest transplant length were obtained from chemical fertilizer treatment and poultry manure in perlite media with animal manure (11.99 mm and 3.34 mm, respectively). Compared means showed that the highest fresh weight of transplant (98.8 g) was obtained by chemical feretilizer in perlite media with animal manure which had not statistically significant different with chemical fertilizer in peat media and the lowest fresh weight of transplant (24.67 g) was obtained by poultry manure in perlite media with animal manure. the highest and the lowest dry matter of transplanting (19.72 and 8.4 g) were obtained by poultry manure in perlite media with animal manure and chemical fertilizer in peat media, respectily, which had not statistically significant different with chemical fertilizer in perlite media with animal manure.

Seyyed-Nazari R.,Urmia University | Ghadimzadeh M.,Urmia University | Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Genetika | Year: 2016

Oriental tobacco is one of the main types of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), which consists eight percent of the total world production in the world. The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters using diallel cross analysis to identify suitable parents used in Oriental tobacco breeding programs. Fifteen F1 progenies along with their six parents were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications in two separate experiments at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran in 2012. Combined analysis of variance for seven investigated traits consisting of fresh weight of leaf (FWL), dry weight of leaf (DWL), number of leaves (NL), length of leaf (LL), width of leaf (WL), length of stem (LS), and diameter of stem (DS), using Griffing's method 2, Model 1 showed significant mean squares of GCA and SCA for all traits except length of leaf indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive genetic effects for these traits. Baker ratios indicated that additive genetic effect were more important for investigated traits except number of leaves in which equal importance of both components was indicated. Good and poor general combiners were determined among parents for each investigated traits and finally a set of hybrids appeared to be significant SCA which could be used in Oriental tobacco improvement.

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