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Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center | Sarrafi A.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Amelioration Des Plantes Bap
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2010

Powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.) is an important disease of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in many countries. Losses in yield and quality have been reported to be around 30% to 80% in severe cases. Northwestern Iran is a hotspot for tobacco powdery mildew. To identify resistant genotypes, tobacco germplasm, including recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Basma S.31 × Dubec566, some Iranian landraces, and cultivars from different countries were evaluated under field conditions using a simple lattice design (10×10) with two replications. Each plot comprised 3 rows, 5 meters long. Spacing between rows was 65 cm and between plants within rows 20 cm. Susceptible line (Basma S.31) was planted throughout the experiment to guarantee homogeneous inoculation. The most resistant genotypes were 12 RILs (PD205, PD209, PD379, PD324, PD328, PD329, PD336, PD345, PD364, PD365, PD371, and PD381), three Iranian landraces (SPT413, Jahrom15, and Jahrom12), and cultivars (Basma104-1 and Pobeda1). Three cultivars (Kuklen6, Nevrokop261, and L17), two mutants (Mutant 2 and Mutant 3), and Matianus were included in the resistant group. The more resistant RILs (PD205 and PD209) were evaluated across three years and showed consistent behavior across years. Most genotypes studied were susceptible or highly susceptible to the disease. This information should be helpful in tobacco breeding programs. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Mirzaei L.,Urmia University | Maleki H.H.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Laurentin H.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity and determine differences between several oriental tobacco genotypes by examining both agro-morphological traits and molecular markers. Simple lattice design with two replications was used to evaluate 100 oriental tobacco genotypes. Analysis of variance manifested that there is high level of genetic diversity in oriental-type tobaccos based on morphological traits including number of leaf, days to 50% flowering, leaf length, leaf width, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem height and stem girth. Classification of genotypes using agro-morphological data by means of un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm based on squared standardized Euclidean distances resulted four distinguishable groups that pursuit own geographical distribution. In the molecular marker investigations, a total of 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) primer pairs were used to determine polymorphism of the test germplasm. Thirty five alleles were scored at 13 SSR loci. The average number of alleles per locus (na) and the effective allele number (Ae) were 2.69 and 2.34, respectively. By using SSR data, pair wise Jaccard's similarity coefficients were produced. Grouping of genotypes via Jaccard's similarity coefficients and using UPGMA clustering method lead to three groups that had not any accommodated with own origins. Results reveled that there is not completely agreement for classification based on agro-morphological and SSR loci in oriental-type tobaccos. Because of non influence of environmental effects on molecular marker, heterotic groups based on SSR markers could be closer to reality. Source


Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center | Sarafi A.,Laboratoire Symbiose et Pathologie des Plantes
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2011

In the present study, the accumulation rates of chloride in the leaves of 100 oriental and semi-oriental tobacco genotypes were evaluated in Urmia Tobacco Research Centre (UTRC). Tobacco genotypes were transplanted in a simple square lattice design with two replications. Each plot was comprised of three lines of 5 m, with a spacing of 65 × 20 cm. Harvested tobacco leaves were sun-cured. From each replication, a random sample of 20 leaves was taken and percentage of chlorine was determined, as defined by CORESTA. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the tobacco genotypes for Cl concentration indicating that Cl concentration is genetically controlled in the genotypes tested. The Cl concentration of 100 genotypes ranged from 0.38-2.68%. Tobacco genotypes, showing low Cl concentration together the reference genotype (Basma S. 31) were evaluated once more in UTRC (low Cl soil) and Anghaneh village (high Cl soil) located near to Urmia salty lack. While all selected genotypes except the local variety, 'Basma S. 31', showed again the accumulation rate of chloride less than 1% in UTRC, in Anghaneh village only one genotype, 'SPT 406', presented a value less than 1% chloride in leaves indicating that this genotype has a great value for using in the breeding programmes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011

A high chloride concentration in oriental tobacco leaf has a detrimental effect on tobacco quality and its burning properties. In order to determine the inheritance of chloride concentration in oriental tobacco leaf eight tobacco genotypes showing genetic variability for chloride concentration on the basis of our previous investigation were crossed in a diallel program. Parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids were evaluated in greenhouse experiment using randomized complete block design with three replications. Each replication consisted of two pots (one plant per pot). Cultivation tookplace in plastic plant pots which contained 10 kg soil from the fields of the northwest Iran where the oriental tobacco type is planted. Standard agrotechnical practices for this tobacco type were applied during growth. Tobacco was harvested when it reached technical maturity then it was sun-cured. Percentage of chloride in cured leaves was determined as defined by CORESTA (Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco, Paris, France). Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of genotypes on chloride concentration and showed significant variability among genotypes for this trait. Diallel analysis showed that general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects for chloride concentration were highly significant indicating that both additive and dominant gene effects were important in controlling the chloride concentration. However, the mean square for specific combining ability was greater than those of general combining ability that shows the predominance of the non-additive genetic effects in controlling the chloride concentration. Therefore, the interpopulational breeding strategy using the heterosis effect could give superior gains to this character. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Gholizadeh S,Urmia University | Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Abdollahi Mandoulakani B.,Urmia University | Bernousi I.,Urmia University | And 2 more authors.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2012

Characterization of genetic diversity has long been a major goal in tobacco breeding programs. Information on genetic diversity is essential for a rational use of genetic resources. In the present study, the genetic variation among 72 flue-cured tobacco genotypes was evaluated using microsatellite markers (SSRs). A set of 104 alleles was generated at 30 SSR loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (na) and the effective allele number (ne) were 3.467 and 2.358, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.29 to 0.75 with average of 0.54. Several methods were used to construct the similarity matrices and dendrograms. The co-phenetic correlation coefficient, which is a measure of the correlation between the similarities represented on the dendrograms and the actual degree of similarity, was calculated for each dendrogram. Among the different methods, the highest value (r=0.76368) was observed for the UPGMA created based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The genetic similarity among the tobacco genotypes calculated by using Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.08 to 0.84, suggesting the presence of high molecular genetic variability among the studied tobacco genotypes. Based on UPGMA clustering method all studied flue-cured tobacco genotypes, except for 'Glustinusa Rasht', were placed in three distinct groups. We observed an obvious heterotic pattern in the studied flue-cured germplasm corresponding to genetic distances and classification dendrogram, which persuades exploitation of heterosis in flue-cured tobaccos. Source

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