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da Silva M.B.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil
Revista brasileira de enfermagem | Year: 2011

Descriptive research, with qualitative approach, that aimed to identify occupational hazards and weaknesses self-reported by motorcycle drivers. Data were collected in the first half of 2010 through interviews with twelve motorcycle drivers, invited to participate and work on two central points of a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, from which emerged five categories. According to subjects' perception, accidents and assaults represent the greatest risks of the profession. It can be inferred that the actions of health education and disease prevention should be governmental and no governmental strategies that would assign value to the health and safety of these workers.

Maestri R.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Marinho J.R.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil
Acta Theriologica | Year: 2014

Rainfall is often indirectly related to the availability of resources, which in turn regulates the abundance of rodents over time. However, the direct influence of rainfall on daily activity is poorly understood, despite the fact that it likely has a great effect on small animals. Furthermore, the influence of the moon on the movement of rodents has been the subject of debate but limited to studies conducted in open areas. Based on a study using pitfall traps in a subtropical region of southern Brazil, this study aimed to investigate the effects of rainfall and the phases of the moon on the daily movements of five species of sigmodontine rodents in a Neotropical forest. Activity patterns were assessed over 130 days, and the daily rainfall and moon phase were verified. Rainfall exhibited a significant positive effect on all studied species. This reflects an increase in the movement of rodents on rainy days, which should be primarily associated with the immediate harmful effects of rain, such as a wet coat and the destruction of shelters. The five species responded differently to moon phase, with a lack of effect for three of them and a positive effect of a full moon on the activity patterns of the other two species. This increase in activity rhythm due to a full moon may indicate a benefit of clear nights for foraging, in contrast to the most common outcome, which associates the brightness of the moon with increased predation risk. © 2014 Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Padilha D.L.,Federal University of Goais | Loregian A.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Budke J.C.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2015

Testing whether biological invasions can be facilitated by habitat fragmentation can provide important insights for the study of invasion ecology. Hovenia dulcis is considered an aggressive non-native species in subtropical Atlantic forest ecosystems and following the assumptions of invasion ecology we hypothesized it would occur mainly in smaller forest remnants, which are more susceptible to edge effects compared to larger ones. In this study, we verified the relationships between H. dulcis invasion on forest remnants and the current habitat fragmentation and tested whether both occurrence and abundance of this species are driven by landscape and habitat variables. We selected 30 forest fragments in initial, middle or late successional stages and verified the occurrence and abundance of trees and saplings of H. dulcis. We evaluated spatial autocorrelation and the influence of landscape and habitat metrics on occurrence and abundance of such species and the influence of fruiting trees (adults) on the abundance of non-adult individuals. We found that H. dulcis distribution was not related to geographic distance among remnants. The occurrence of adult H. dulcis was directly associated to closed-canopy areas and remnant shape and, contrary our initial hypothesis, not related to remnant size. The occurrence of adult trees increased H. dulcis regeneration leading to higher sapling abundance. High abundance of H. dulcis saplings close to adult trees pointed out the successful colonization of recently invaded Atlantic forest remnants. We showed that this invasive tree species successfully invades closed-canopy forest fragments, which highlight undisturbed subtropical Atlantic forest habitats are as susceptible to biological invasions as disturbed ones. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Qualitative study that aimed at investigating concepts and practices of nursing technicians on biosecurity and its interface with biological hazards, with 20 workers developed a clinical care unit of a hospital in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected through interviews and systematic observation. Thematic analysis was the methodology used for data processing. The negligence of its employees on the use of individual protection equipment and work overload are risk factors for accidents with biological material. Suggested that partnerships between the actors involved in caring for the construction of healthy environments and accountability for negligence on biosecurity.

Centeno F.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Da Silva C.V.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Franca F.H.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

This paper presents a study of the effect of thermal radiation in the simulation of a turbulent, non-premixed methane-air flame. In such a problem, two aspects need to be considered for a precise evaluation of the thermal radiation: the turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI), and the local variation of the radiative properties of the participating species, which are treated here with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) model based on newly obtained correlations from HITEMP2010 database. The chemical reactions rates were considered as the minimum values between the Arrhenius and Eddy Break-Up rates. A two-step global reaction mechanism was used, while the turbulence modeling was considered via standard k-É model. The source terms of the energy equation consisted of the heat generated in the chemical reaction rates as well as in the radiation exchanges. The discrete ordinates method (DOM) was employed to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), including the TRI. Comparisons of simulations with/without radiation (which in turn was solved with/without TRI) demonstrated that the temperature, the radiative heat source, and the wall heat flux were importantly affected by thermal radiation, while the influence on species concentrations proved to be negligible. Inclusion of thermal radiation led to results that were closer to experimental data available in the literature for the same test case considered in this paper. Inclusion of TRI improved the agreement, although in a smaller degree. The main influence of TRI was mainly on global results, such as the peak temperature and the radiant fraction. The results show the importance of thermal radiation for an accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of a combustion chamber. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kratzmann D.J.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Carey S.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil | Scasso R.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Naranjo J.-A.,Serv. Nacional Geol. y Mineria
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2010

Hudson volcano (Chile) is the southern most stratovolcano of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone and has produced some of the largest Holocene eruptions in South America. There have been at least 12 recorded Holocene explosive events at Hudson, with the 6700 years BP, 3600 years BP, and 1991 eruptions the largest of these. Hudson volcano has consistently discharged magmas of similar trachyandesitic and trachydacitic composition, with comparable anhydrous phenocryst assemblages, and pre-eruptive temperatures and oxygen fugacities. Pre-eruptive storage conditions for the three largest Holocene events have been estimated using mineral geothermometry, melt inclusion volatile contents, and comparisons to analogous high pressure experiments. Throughout the Holocene, storage of the trachyandesitic magmas occurred at depths between 0.2 and 2.7 km at approximately ̃972°C (±25) and log fO2 -10.33-10.24 (±0.2) (one log unit above the NNO buffer), with between 1 and 3 wt% H2O in the melt. Pre-eruptive storage of the trachydacitic magma occurred between 1.1 and 2.0 km, at ̃942°C (±26) and log fO2 -10. 68 (±0.2), with ̃2.5 wt% H2O in the melt. The evolved trachyandesitic and trachydacitic magmas can be derived from a basaltic parent primarily via fractional crystallization. Entrapment pressures estimated from plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions suggest relatively shallow levels of crystallization. However, trace element data (e.g., Dy/Yb ratio trends) suggests amphibole played an important role in the differentiation of the Hudson magmas, and this fractionation is likely to have occurred at depths >6 km. The absence of a garnet signal in the Hudson trace element data, the potential staging point for differentiation of parental mafic magmas [i.e., ̃20 km (e.g., Annen et al. in J Petrol47(3):505-539, 2006)], and the inferred amphibolite facies [̃24 km (e.g., Rudnick and Fountain in Rev Geophys 33:267-309, 1995)] combine to place some constraint on the lower limit of depth of differentiation (i.e., ̃20-24 km). These constraints suggest that differentiation of mantle-derived magmas occurred at upper-mid to lower crustal levels and involved a hydrous mineral assemblage that included amphibole, and generated a basaltic to basaltic andesitic composition similar to the magma discharged during the first phase of the 1991 eruption. Continued fractionation at this depth resulted in the formation of the trachyandesitic and trachydacitic compositions. These more evolved magmas ascended and stalled in the shallow crust, as suggested by the pressures of entrapment obtained from the melt inclusions. The decrease in pressure that accompanied ascent, combined with the potential heating of the magma body through decompression-induced crystallization would cause the magma to cross out of the amphibole stability field. Further shallow crystallization involved an anhydrous mineral assemblage and may explain the lack of phenocrystic amphibole in the Hudson suite. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Santos A.V.D.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2012

The theoretical prediction of compounds' properties is a desired dream by physicists, chemists and materials engineers; here we will establish a model to predict the stability of alloys, using first-principles LAPW calculations (Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) which is a APW modification (Augmented Plane Waves Method of Slater). We propose to calculate the energy of formation and cohesive energy of iridium-iron alloys and iridium-iron nitrides. In this discussion we will find a methodology that can be applied to solids with different atoms, creating a model to calculate the stability of these alloys. In our calculations we found a unit cell volume with a high increase when we changed from alloys to nitrides, thereby strongly influencing the energy of formation and cohesive energy. We also study the pressure in response to changes in the volume and the total energy of the compound, verifying that the same volume of balance was found in the minimum of cohesive energy of compounds at zero pressure. Finally, we discuss the critical pressure between ferromagnetic and non-magnetic phases, which proves to be of the same order of magnitude of some experimental and theoretical results of other systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dos Santos A.V.,URI Integrated Regional University Brazil
Solid State Communications | Year: 2011

The importance of using theoretical methods for first principles calculations to have a better understanding of new material properties gives a detailed study on the properties of the ground state. In the present paper a study was carried out on the effects of a carbon atom inserted into the Ni 3Al structure changing its crystalline FCC to a perovskite structure in the form of Ni3AlC. Initially, we show the equilibrium volume of the two composites where there is a good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, we point out a magnetic structure where we find low magnetization in the composite Ni3AlC and reveal an appreciable magnetization in the composite Ni3Al. In order to obtain the results above we used the first-principles method: the Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) method within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). Besides, we carried out a comparison with the experimental results presented in the literature, which showed reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Van Achte, URI Integrated Regional University Brazil and Le Moine | Date: 2012-12-05

Disclosed is a method for generating a surround-channel audio signal (Mout) from a mono/stereo audio signal (Min, Sin), comprising the steps of:a) generating a first multi-channel signal (M1) by surround panning the mono/stereo audio signal (Sin);b) generating a second multi-channel signal (M2) by effect processing the mono/stereo input signal (Min, Sin) so that the rear signals comprise at least reverberation of the mono/stereo audio signals;c) mixing the corresponding signals of the first multi-channel signal (M1) and the second multi-channel signal (M2), thereby forming the surround-channel audio signal (Mout).

In this paper the lifestyle of the large Balaton-Lasinja/Furchenstich and Boleráz/Baden settlement, Balatonocombining double acute accentszöd-Temetocombining double acute accenti ducombining double acute accentlocombining double acute accent was investigated, in the respect of possible common ceramic forms, technology, tradition, food-products and consumption in the period of Middle and Late Copper Age. Archaeometrical investigation of the same subject is presented below in the article of Gherdán et al., same volume. On the base of the excavation data, the water-logged settlement of Balatonocombining double acute accentszöd- Temetocombining double acute accenti ducombining double acute accentlocombining double acute accent first time was dated in the Middle Copper Age, Balaton-Lasinja/Furchenastich period. In the pottery we can find many similarities to the Late Copper Age Boleráz/Baden period (e.g. the same clay-mine used, pottery tempered with grog, same burning method, polished pottery surface, dark color, dotted and channeled decoration, birch-bark tar using on the inner or outer surface, handles fixed by joint, appaerance liquid-storage vessels with handle: e.g. jugs, amphorae). We can notice some differences also: in the Middle Copper Age the potters built the pottery from bands, in the Late Copper Age the potters worked also with patches. There are differences in the fixing of the bottom to the vessel-side. Because of the closest analogies among the vessel-forms and building technique, and the mixed features and finds on the same site we suggest the interaction of this two periods. The possible synchronism happened around 3700-3500 cal BC. The practice to make pots in the Boleráz and the Baden periods was the same, but among the forms we can find many differences. Both population used the same clay pits, technology and vegetal decoration system. The organic residues on the pots indicated fixed, common or familiar / household cooking places and culture: food prepared mainly from animal products. Both cultures were basically stock-breeding communities, and they lived on extensive, sparse settlements. The Boleráz and the Baden independent folk fused at the site among 3300-3100 cal BC. © by the author(s).

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