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Urbino, Italy

The University of Urbino "Carlo Bo" is an Italian university located in Urbino, a walled hill-town in the region of Marche, located in the north-eastern part of central Italy. The university was founded in 1506 and, in the 1920s, gained recognition as an “Independent University” with a charter which made state aid possible though not mandatory. Once fully recognized as an Independent University, student numbers gradually increased as more facilities were opened.During the 1960s/70s, the University succeeded in buying up quite a number of derelict palaces in the old center which have since been restored and used as faculty and department buildings. While the student body and faculties gradually increased and developed over time it was under the long and presidency of Senator for Life Carlo Bo that the University enjoyed unprecedented growth in size and prestige, prompting the former president of the European Community Commission, Roy Jenkins, to state that “the University of Urbino is an incisive presence in contemporary thought, contributing in original ways to the cultural and intellectual life of Europe”. This was also the period where architect Giancarlo De Carlo designed and built the University Halls of Residence, which can accommodate 1500 students.Today, the University of Urbino is a State University. It numbers 10 faculties and currently has about 20,000 students, many of whom are from overseas. The university has no central campus as such, and instead occupies numerous buildings throughout the town and in the surrounding countryside. The main accommodation blocks are situated a short distance from the town. The University of Urbino has traditionally given precedence to studies in the humanities, and is especially renowned for its Italian-language courses. Wikipedia.

Stefanini L.,Urbino University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2010

We propose a generalization of the Hukuhara difference. First, the case of compact convex sets is examined; then, the results are applied to generalize the Hukuhara difference of fuzzy numbers, using their compact and convex level-cuts. Finally, a similar approach is suggested to attempt a generalization of division for real intervals and fuzzy numbers. Applications to solving interval and fuzzy linear equations and fuzzy differential equations are shown. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stefanini L.,Urbino University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2011

The fuzzy transform (F-transform) has some interesting properties that allow its use in curve fitting and smoothing. We suggest the following: (a) a generalization of fuzzy partitions for the F-transform to control and improve the smoothing effect and (b) a parametrization of the fuzzy numbers constituting the basic functions related to the fuzzy partitions. An optimization criterion is then suggested to obtain the F-transform with best approximation properties, by estimating the basic functions from a family of parametric fuzzy numbers. The generalized fuzzy partitions are characterized by the number of subintervals (the bandwidth of the partition) forming the core of each basic function and we suggest two procedures for bandwidth selection: one based on taut-string variation and a second based on generalized cross validation. Some illustrative examples are included. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mannello F.,Urbino University
Expert review of proteomics | Year: 2012

Traditional technologies to investigate system biology are limited by the detection of parameters resulting from the averages of large populations of cells, missing cells produced in small numbers, and attempting to uniform the heterogeneity. The advent of proteomics and genomics at a single-cell level has set the basis for an outstanding improvement in analytical technology and data acquisition. It has been well demonstrated that cellular heterogeneity is closely related to numerous stochastic transcriptional events leading to variations in patterns of expression among single genetically identical cells. The new-generation technology of single-cell analysis is able to better characterize a cell's population, identifying and differentiating outlier cells, in order to provide both a single-cell experiment and a corresponding bulk measurement, through the identification, quantification and characterization of all system biology aspects (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, degradomics and fluxomics). The movement of omics into single-cell analysis represents a significant and outstanding shift.

Sestili P.,Urbino University
Amino acids | Year: 2011

Creatine monohydrate (Cr), the most diffuse supplement in the sports industry, is receiving greater attention because of its beneficial effects in a wide number of human degenerative diseases and conditions. These effects can be barely explained on the basis of the sole ergogenic role of the Cr/CrP system. Indeed, a wide number of research articles indicate that Cr is capable of exerting multiple, non-energy related, effects on diverse and relevant cellular targets. Among these effects, the antioxidant activity of Cr emerges as an additional mechanism which is likely to play a supportive role in the Cr-cytoprotection paradigm.

Harms J.,Urbino University
Living Reviews in Relativity | Year: 2015

Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10–23 Hz–1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article. © The Author(s).

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