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Urbino, Italy

The University of Urbino "Carlo Bo" is an Italian university located in Urbino, a walled hill-town in the region of Marche, located in the north-eastern part of central Italy. The university was founded in 1506 and, in the 1920s, gained recognition as an “Independent University” with a charter which made state aid possible though not mandatory. Once fully recognized as an Independent University, student numbers gradually increased as more facilities were opened.During the 1960s/70s, the University succeeded in buying up quite a number of derelict palaces in the old center which have since been restored and used as faculty and department buildings. While the student body and faculties gradually increased and developed over time it was under the long and presidency of Senator for Life Carlo Bo that the University enjoyed unprecedented growth in size and prestige, prompting the former president of the European Community Commission, Roy Jenkins, to state that “the University of Urbino is an incisive presence in contemporary thought, contributing in original ways to the cultural and intellectual life of Europe”. This was also the period where architect Giancarlo De Carlo designed and built the University Halls of Residence, which can accommodate 1500 students.Today, the University of Urbino is a State University. It numbers 10 faculties and currently has about 20,000 students, many of whom are from overseas. The university has no central campus as such, and instead occupies numerous buildings throughout the town and in the surrounding countryside. The main accommodation blocks are situated a short distance from the town. The University of Urbino has traditionally given precedence to studies in the humanities, and is especially renowned for its Italian-language courses. Wikipedia.

Stefanini L.,Urbino University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2010

We propose a generalization of the Hukuhara difference. First, the case of compact convex sets is examined; then, the results are applied to generalize the Hukuhara difference of fuzzy numbers, using their compact and convex level-cuts. Finally, a similar approach is suggested to attempt a generalization of division for real intervals and fuzzy numbers. Applications to solving interval and fuzzy linear equations and fuzzy differential equations are shown. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Stefanini L.,Urbino University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2011

The fuzzy transform (F-transform) has some interesting properties that allow its use in curve fitting and smoothing. We suggest the following: (a) a generalization of fuzzy partitions for the F-transform to control and improve the smoothing effect and (b) a parametrization of the fuzzy numbers constituting the basic functions related to the fuzzy partitions. An optimization criterion is then suggested to obtain the F-transform with best approximation properties, by estimating the basic functions from a family of parametric fuzzy numbers. The generalized fuzzy partitions are characterized by the number of subintervals (the bandwidth of the partition) forming the core of each basic function and we suggest two procedures for bandwidth selection: one based on taut-string variation and a second based on generalized cross validation. Some illustrative examples are included. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Harms J.,Urbino University
Living Reviews in Relativity | Year: 2015

Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10–23 Hz–1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article. © The Author(s). Source

Casettari L.,Urbino University | Illum L.,IDentity
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb® (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys® based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail® based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

The Regents Of The University Of California, University of Parma, Urbino University and Italian Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-18

The present invention provides methods of making and using peripherally restricted inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The present invention provides compounds and compositions that suppress FAAH activity and increases anandamide levels outside the central nervous system (CNS). The present invention also sets forth methods for inhibiting FAAH as well as methods for treating conditions such as, but not limited to, pain, inflammation, immune disorders, dermatitis, mucositis, the over reactivity of peripheral sensory neurons, neurodermatitis, and an overactive bladder. Accordingly, the invention also provides compounds, methods, and pharmaceutical compositions for treating conditions in which the selective inhibition of peripheral FAAH (as opposed to CNS FAAH) would be of benefit.

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