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Fortier J.,URANIE USC1335 Nutrition du Cheval Athlete | Deley G.,Center Dexpertise Of La Performance | Goachet A.-G.,URANIE USC1335 Nutrition du Cheval Athlete | Julliand V.,URANIE USC1335 Nutrition du Cheval Athlete
Animal | Year: 2015

An appropriate energy feeding management that ensures the optimal dietary energy supply according to the energy expenditure (EE) is a crucial component for the horse's performance. The main purpose of this study was to determine the EE during four specific exercises used in the training of Standardbred trotters (promenade, jogging, parcours and interval work-outs). A total of six Standardbred geldings performed four different testing situations on a track. The intensity (expressed in percentage of the maximal velocity over 500 m, i.e. v500) and volume (distance and duration) of the testing situations were determined according to practices reported by French trainers. Promenade and jogging included only an exercise phase, whereas parcours and interval situations also included a warm-up and a recovery phase. Oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded from 2 min before the beginning through to the end of the testing situations, using a portable respiratory gas analyser. Blood lactate levels and rectal temperature were determined before and immediately after the exercise phase of each testing situations. EE of the different phases (warm-up, exercise and recovery) and EE of the entire testing situations (EETOTAL) were calculated from VO2 measurements and the O2 caloric equivalent. Interval and parcours situations induced higher physiological responses than promenade and jogging situations, particularly in terms of VO2peak, VCO2peak and HRpeak. The highest blood lactate concentration (6 mmol/l) was measured after the interval exercise, and respiratory exchange ratios ≥1 were observed only for the parcours situation. The EE of exercise phase varied from 0.49 to 1.79 kJ/min per kg for promenade and parcours situations. The EE of warm-up and recovery phases did not differ between parcours and interval situations, and was estimated at 1.04 and 0.57 kJ/min per kg BW, respectively. On average, the warm-up and the recovery phases contributed to 38% and 19% of the EETOTAL. For promenade, jogging, parcours and interval situations, EETOTAL was evaluated at 12 618, 11 119, 13 698 and 18 119 kJ, respectively. © The Animal Consortium 2014. Source

Fortier J.,URANIE USC1335 Nutrition du Cheval Athlete | Goachet A.G.,URANIE USC1335 Nutrition du Cheval Athlete | Julliand V.,URANIE USC1335 Nutrition du Cheval Athlete | Deley G.,Center Dexpertise Of La Performance
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2015

Summary: In humans, cardiorespiratory responses are widely evaluated from field incremental exercise tests. On the contrary, equine exercise physiology faces a huge lack of oxygen consumption measurements (VO2) in field conditions due to technical concerns. The aim of this study was to test the effects of two incremental continuous field tests on cardiorespiratory responses in Standardbred trotters. The two protocols were realized at trot and ended when horses galloped. The tests started at 4.2 m/s (T1) and 6.4 m/s (T2), with speed increments of 1.4 m/s every 3 min for T1 and 0.8 m/s every 2 min for T2. Velocity (v), heart rate (HR) and gas exchanges were recorded continuously, and blood lactate concentration [La-] was measured before and after tests. Values recorded at the end of the tests were considered as peak values. The vpeak values were 10.6 ± 0.3 and 10.7 ± 0.7 m/s for T1 and T2 respectively. Horses reached higher VO2peak (T1: 116.6 ± 11.5 ml/min/kg; T2: 88.9 ± 10.2 ml/min/kg; p < 0.05) and HRpeak (T1: 217 ± 5 bpm; T2: 209 ± 3 bpm; p < 0.05) during T1 compared with T2. T1 was significantly longer than T2 (17.5 ± 1.9 vs. 12.9 ± 1.6 min respectively, p < 0.01), and the number of steps entirely ran tended to be different (T1: 5.6 ± 0.6; T2: 6.2 ± 0.8, p = 0.07). Compared to T2, the design of T1 appeared easier to implement and allowed higher cardiorespiratory responses. The relationship between HR-VO2 obtained through T1 gave a better correlation between the two variables than T2. These findings suggest that T1 might be better than T2 for evaluating cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise and for estimating aerobic energy expenditure in exercising trotters. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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