Plombières-lès-Dijon, France
Plombières-lès-Dijon, France

Time filter

Source Type

Faubladier C.,URANIE | Chaucheyras-Durand F.,Lallemand Animal Nutrition | Chaucheyras-Durand F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | da Veiga L.,URANIE | Julliand V.,URANIE
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and activities in horses with or without supplementation of live yeast and attempted to link those effects with changes in blood stress markers. Four mature horses were assigned to a crossover design and fed a basal diet (60:40 forage to concentrate; 1.45% BW on a DM basis), with or without supplementation, of 2 × 1010 cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077. After a 14-d adaptation to dietary treatments, the 5-d experiment started 1 d before transportation (d -1). At d 0, horses were simultaneously transported in a truck for 2 h. Feces were sampled 4 h after the morning meal of concentrate at d -1, 0 (immediately after transportation), and 3 for enumeration of the main functional bacterial groups and determination of fermentative variables. Within each dietary treatment, feces were pooled before DNA extraction and molecular analysis of the bacterial communities, using temporal temperature gradient electrophoreses (TTGE). Blood samples were collected at the same time for determination of white blood cells (WBC) counts and glucose and total protein concentrations. Regardless of dietary treatment, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increased during transportation (P < 0.01), indicating that horses were stressed. In both treatments, TTGE profiles were clearly different before and 3 d after transportation, and the percentage of similarity between profiles at d -1 and 3 was greater in supplemented horses compared with the controls. From d 0 to 3, the molar percentage of propionate increased and total concentration of VFA and the acetate + butyrate to propionate ratio decreased, regardless of dietary treatment (P < 0.01, P = 0.02, and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas pH decreased only in control horses (P = 0.03). Regardless of day of sampling, fecal concentrations of lactate-utilizing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria were greater in supplemented horses than in control horses (P = 0.04 and 0.08, respectively). Our results indicate that transportation for 2 h disturbed the fecal bacterial ecosystem in horses that could increase the risk of triggering microbial dysbiosis on a longer term in the equine large intestine. Supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 could help reduce the negative impact of transportation on the fecal bacterial ecosystem. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Philippeau C.,Uranie | Varloud M.,In Vivo NSA | Julliand V.,Uranie
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

To determine prececal starch digestibility and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in glycemic parameters. Further investigations should be performed to improve methods for estimating prececal starch digestion of processed cereals in the different digestive segments of horses. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Goachet A.G.,URANIE | Harris P.,Equine Studies Group | Philippeau C.,URANIE | Julliand V.,URANIE
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2014

This study aimed at evaluating, in previously inactive Standardbreds horses, the effect of 5 weeks of an exercise training programme on nutrient digestibility and faecal fermentative parameters (FFPs). As an increase in digestibility had previously been reported in trained endurance horses, we hypothesized that similar results would be found in horses being trained for other types of exercise on a different type of diet. After 3 weeks of dietary adaptation, a digestibility trial (DT1) was undertaken, over 3 days, in eight untrained Standardbreds with a fresh faecal sample being collected on the second day for FFP determinations. Six of the eight horses undertook a training programme, and after 5 weeks of exercise, the DT and the FFP measurements were then repeated (DT2). DT2 began after 3 days of inactivity. The same natural meadow hay (H) and pelleted complementary feed (CF) were fed throughout. For 5 days before the DTs, horses were fed 2.1% BW on a dry matter basis (55:45 ratio H:CF). Body weight and body condition score remained constant. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre, hemicellulose, crude protein and gross energy, as well as faecal total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetate and propionate concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher at DT2 than at DT1. A 5-week exercise programme had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and FFP. Training may improve dietary energy supply, in particular via increased hindgut VFA production. The potential improvement of digestive efficiency with training should be taken into account when formulating nutritional recommendations for the exercising horse, particularly when performing light work, which is low-intensity exercise for 1-3 h per week. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible. © The Animal Consortium 2014.


PubMed | URANIE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2015

Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible.

Loading URANIE collaborators
Loading URANIE collaborators