Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine

Chelyabinsk, Russia

Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine

Chelyabinsk, Russia
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Mikryukova L.D.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Akleyev A.V.,Chelyabinsk State University
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2017

The present study is based on a retrospective analysis of archive data of the Clinical Department of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine that has been established to examine and treat accidentally exposed residents of the Urals Region. All individuals included in this study were examined by an ophthalmologist. The study of cataract incidence has been conducted retrospectively for the period from 1951 till 2000 among chronically exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages (6343 persons). Individual accumulated absorbed doses to soft tissues (analogue of eye dose) reached 1.18 Gy (mean 0.12 Gy) while for 88.9% of the study group the dose did not exceed 0.1 Gy. There was no evidence of the influence of low-dose and low-dose rate on cataract incidence. Excess relative risk of cataract formation per 1 Gy was 0.40 (95% CI −0.43; 1.47). It is noted that 15% of all excess cases were registered in persons with soft tissue dose above 0.3 Gy, though their fraction among all examined persons was only 4.1%. Risk of cataract development significantly increased in exposed individuals with retinal angiosclerosis, diabetes and arterial hypertension. © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany

Preston D.L.,Hirosoft International | Sokolnikov M.E.,Epidemiology Laboratory Southern Urals Biophysics Institute | Krestinina L.Y.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Stram D.O.,University of Southern California
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2017

For almost 50 y, the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivor studies has been the primary source of the quantitative estimates of cancer and non-cancer risks that form the basis of international radiation protection standards. However, the long-term follow-up and extensive individual dose reconstruction for the Russian Mayak worker cohort (MWC) and Techa River cohort (TRC) are providing quantitative information about radiation effects on cancer risks that complement the atomic bomb survivor-based risk estimates. The MWC, which includes ~26 000 men and women who began working at Mayak between 1948 and 1982, is the primary source for estimates of the effects of plutonium on cancer risks and also provides information on the effects of low-dose rate external gamma exposures. The TRC consists of ~30 000 men and women of all ages who received low-dose-rate, low-dose exposures as a consequence of Mayak's release of radioactive material into the Techa River. The TRC data are of interest because the exposures are broadly similar to those experienced by populations exposed as a consequence of nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. In this presentation, it is described the strengths and limitations of these three cohorts, outline and compare recent solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates and discussed why information from the Mayak and Techa River studies might play a role in the development and refinement of the radiation risk estimates that form the basis for radiation protection standards. © The Author 2016.

Degteva M.O.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Shagina N.B.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Vorobiova M.I.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Anspaugh L.R.,University of Utah | Napier B.A.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Health Physics | Year: 2012

The Mayak Production Association was the first site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium in Russia. Early operations led to the waterborne release of radioactive materials into the small Techa River. Residents living downstream used river water for drinking and other purposes. The releases and subsequent flooding resulted in deposition of sediments along the shoreline and on floodplain soil. Primary routes of exposure were external dose from the deposited sediments and ingestion of 90Sr and other radionuclides. Study of the Techa River Cohort has revealed an increased incidence of leukemia and solid cancers. Epidemiologic studies are supported by extensive dose-reconstruction activities that have led to various versions of a Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). The correctness of the TRDS has been challenged by the allegation that releases of short-lived radionuclides were much larger than those used in the TRDS. Although the dosimetry system depends more upon measurements of 90Sr in humans and additional measurements of radionuclides and of exposure rates in the environment, a major activity has been undertaken to define more precisely the time-dependent rates of release and their radionuclide composition. The major releases occurred during 1950-1951 in the form of routine releases and major accidental releases. The reevaluated amount of total release is 114 PBq, about half of which was from accidents that occurred in late 1951. The time-dependent composition of the radionuclides released has also been reevaluated. The improved understanding presented in this paper is possible because of access to many documents not previously available. Copyright © 2011 Health Physics Society.

Krestinina L.Y.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Davis F.G.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Schonfeld S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Schonfeld S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Little is known about leukaemia risk following chronic radiation exposures at low dose rates. The Techa River Cohort of individuals residing in riverside villages between 1950 and 1961 when releases from the Mayak plutonium production complex contaminated the river allows quantification of leukaemia risks associated with chronic low-dose-rate internal and external exposures. Methods: Excess relative risk models described the dose-response relationship between radiation dose on the basis of updated dose estimates and the incidence of haematological malignancies ascertained between 1953 and 2007 among 28 223 cohort members, adjusted for attained age, sex, and other factors. Results: Almost half of the 72 leukaemia cases (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)) were estimated to be associated with radiation exposure. These data are consistent with a linear dose response with no evidence of modification. The excess relative risk estimate was 0.22 per 100 mGy. There was no evidence of significant dose effect for CLL or other haematopoietic malignancies. Conclusion: These analyses demonstrate that radiation exposures, similar to those received by populations exposed as a consequence of nuclear accidents, are associated with long-term dose-related increases in leukaemia risks. Using updated dose estimates, the leukaemia risk per unit dose is about half of that based on previous dosimetry. Copyright © 2013 Cancer Research UK.

Schonfeld S.J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Krestinina L.Y.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Epifanova S.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Degteva M.O.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Research | Year: 2013

Our understanding of cancer risk from ionizing radiation is largely based on studies of populations exposed at high dose and high dose rates. Less certain is the magnitude of cancer risk from protracted, low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation exposure. We estimated the dose-response relationship for solid cancer mortality in a cohort of 29,730 individuals who lived along the Techa River between 1950 and 1960. This population was exposed to both external γ radiation and internal 90Sr, 137Cs and other radionuclides after the release of radioactive waste into the river by the Mayak Radiochemical Plant. The analysis utilized the latest individualized doses from the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS) 2009. We estimated excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gy for solid cancer mortality using Poisson regression methods with 95 confidence intervals (CIs) and P values based on likelihood ratio tests. Between 1950 and 2007, there were 2,303 solid cancer deaths. The linear ERR/Gy 0.61 (95CI 0.04-1.27), P 0.03. It is estimated that approximately 2 (49.7) of solid cancers deaths were associated with the radiation exposure. Our results, based on 2,303 solid cancer deaths and more than 50 years of follow-up, support an increased risk of solid cancer mortality following protracted radiation exposure from the Techa River contamination. The wide confidence interval of our estimate reflects the challenges of quantifying and describing the shape of the dose-response relationship in the low dose range. Nevertheless, the risk estimates provide important information concerning health risks from whole-body radiation exposure that can occur from accidents that result in wide-scale environmental contamination.

Smirnova O.A.,Federal State Unitary Enterprise | Akleyev A.V.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Dimov G.P.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine
Health Physics | Year: 2014

A profound approach to the analysis of clinical data on the dynamics of major hematopoietic lineages (granulocytopoietic, thrombocytopoietic, and erythrocytopoietic systems) in chronically irradiated humans is proposed. It is based on recently developed mathematical models of these systems in humans, which enable one to study and interpret clinical hematological data. The developed approach is applied to the analysis of statistically processed clinical data, which were obtained under hematological examinations of residents of Techa riverside villages. These people were exposed to chronic irradiation with varying dose rate due to the radioactive contamination of the river basin by the Mayak Production Association. In the course of modeling studies, the relationship between the dynamics of aforementioned systems in examined individuals and the variation of chronic exposure dose rate over the considered period of time is revealed. It is found that the models are capable of reproducing common regularities and peculiarities of the dynamics of systems on hand, including the decreased stationary levels of blood cell concentrations during the period of maximum radiation exposure, the recovery processes during the period of decrease of exposure dose rate, and the prevalence of younger bone marrow granulocytopoietic cells over more mature ones during the entire period. The mechanisms of such effects of chronic irradiation on the hematopoietic lineages are revealed on the basis of modeling studies. All this testifies to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the analysis, investigation, and prediction of effects of chronic irradiation on human hematopoietic system. Copyright © 2014 Health Physics Society. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

Shishkina E.A.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Timofeev Y.S.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Ivanov D.V.,RAS Institute of Metal Physics
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2014

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty. © The Author 2014.Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Shishkina E.A.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2012

Non-destructive detection of very low concentrations of 90Sr (about 0.4 Bq g -1) inside powdered samples with masses below 200 mg (such as tooth enamel prepared for EPR measurements) is not a trivial task. Most of the conventional measurement techniques require a special chemical treatment or an enrichment process. Thin-layer α-Al 2O 3:C passive luminescence beta detectors have been successfully used for measuring dose rates due to beta decay of 90Sr inside small samples. In this paper, a new refinement is introduced for the assessment of 90Sr concentration in dental tissue using thin-layer α-Al 2O 3:C passive luminescence beta detectors. The performance parameters of passive luminescence beta detection (such as detection and quantification limits) have been evaluated using statistical analysis of the experimental results. The sources of uncertainty have been analyzed and the total uncertainty calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The results of TL passive beta detection for measurement of 90Sr concentrations are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained using low-level beta counting. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Akleyev A.V.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2012

Presented in the manuscript are the results of an analytic study on the chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) among 940 residents of the Techa riverside villages. The uniqueness of this pathology is associated with the fact that, so far, this clinical entity has mainly been observed among Mayak PA workers and residents of the Techa riverside villages. The analyses of CRS cases identified among a population characterised by significant heterogeneity in terms of age, baseline health status and other radiosensitivity modification factors presents a considerable scientific and practical interest. It has been shown that a long-term total exposure at doses in excess of the threshold organ dose in people causes primarily functional changes (neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia, vegetative dysfunction and asthenia) which, if the exposure continues, are transformed into organic changes (bone marrow hypoplasia, organic damage to the nervous system). If the dose rate decreases below the threshold, a complete repair of the functional changes is observed, while organic alterations may persist for a long time. © World Health Organization 2012. All rights reserved.

Krestinina L.Y.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Epifanova S.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Silkin S.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Mikryukova L.,Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to analyze the mortality from circulatory diseases for about 30,000 members of the Techa River cohort over the period 1950-2003, and to investigate how these rates depend on radiation doses. This population received both external and internal exposures from 90Sr, 89Sr, 137Cs, and other uranium fission products as a result of waterborne releases from the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals region of the Russian Federation. The analysis included individualized estimates of the total (external plus internal) absorbed dose in muscle calculated based on the Techa River Dosimetry System 2009. The cohort-average dose to muscle tissue was 35 mGy, and the maximum dose was 510 mGy. Between 1950 and 2003, 7,595 deaths from circulatory diseases were registered among cohort members with 901,563 person years at risk. Mortality rates in the cohort were analyzed using a simple parametric excess relative risk (ERR) model. For all circulatory diseases, the estimated excess relative risk per 100 mGy with a 15-year lag period was 3.6 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.2-7.5 %, and for ischemic heart disease it was 5.6 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.1-11.9 %. A linear ERR model provided the best fit. Analyses with a lag period shorter than 15 years from the beginning of exposure did not reveal any significant risk of mortality from either all circulatory diseases or ischemic heart disease. There was no evidence of an increased mortality risk from cerebrovascular disease (p > 0.5). These results should be regarded as preliminary, since they will be updated after adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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