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Bambou J.C.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques | Cei W.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques | Camous S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Archimede H.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the type of Haemonchus contortus experimental infection (trickle infection, TI versus single infection, SI) on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, parasitological and haematological measures, and plasma leptin in Creole kids. The animals were infected over 2 periods (challenge 1 and challenge 2) of 6 weeks each, corresponding respectively to the primary and the secondary infection. Periods prior infection (1 week each) were considered as controls. The primary infection was realized with 35 Creole kids (18.40 ± 3.76. kg. BW) housed in individual boxes and fed a hay-based diet. The secondary infection continued with 29 kids (21.90 ± 3.40. kg. BW) from the initial 35. A total of 6 kids and 8 kids were slaughtered for measuring nematode burden at the end of the primary and the secondary infection, respectively. Measurements of nutrients digestibility were made at 0, 3 and 5 weeks post-infection for both challenges. Faecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia and packed cell volume (PCV) were monitored weekly. Feed intake (dry matter intake, DMI) and nutrients digestibility were negatively affected by H. contortus infection only during the primary infection. Plasma leptin changed significantly over time (P= 0.0002) but was not affected by the infection type. Effect of infection type was observed only on crude protein digestibility during the primary infection, which was lower in the TI group (P< 0.01). The overall level of blood eosinophilia was significantly higher in the TI group (P< 0.0001) during both challenges. The overall FEC mean was significantly higher in the SI compared with the TI groups, during both challenges (P< 0.02). These results were related to the mean female length significantly higher in the SI group compared with the TI group during challenge 1 (P= 0.004), and the number of adult nematode significantly lower in the TI group compared with the SI group during the challenge 2 (P= 0.05). The results showed that the response of Creole kids to H. contortus experimental infection was in part dependent on the type of experimental infection. Our data suggest that plasma leptin would not be involved in the response of Creole kids against H. contortus infection, as no relationship between its plasma level and the transient reduction in voluntary feed intake observed in both groups during the primary infection was observed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Archimede H.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques | Bastianelli D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bastianelli D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bastianelli D.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 4 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

Availability and sources of variation in the feed value of tropical plant resources and agro-industry by-products were studied. There is a large diversity of feed resources (grass, legume, fodder trees, grains, tubers, co-culture, by-products of agro-industries) reflecting the great diversity of more or less intensified farming systems that includes feeding the different crops to livestock at variable levels. Feeds may be identical to those (soybean, corn) used in temperate zones, especially in modern farms. They can also be classified by their botanical origin (sorghum, tubers, fodder, and fodder trees), their composition (frequent presence of secondary metabolites) and treatment technology (agro-products from artisanal food) that they have suffered. There is great variability between and within feed value of resources. Whatever the animal species, high energy value resources, similar or close to temperate counterparts, are available. In contrast, the many protein-resources have values that do not «compete» with soybeans. Specific strategies to use certain resources are necessary because of the presence of secondary metabolites with antinutritional activities. Intra resource, management (fodder age, feeding strategy...) and the technology used (elimination of antinutritional factors, method of oil extraction from oilseeds, processing of cereal grains) induces variabilities that affect both the energy and protein values and that are often higher than those resulting from genetic origins. High feed value resources are available in the tropics provided that one applies the proper management and chooses the right animal species for their valorsiation. The accumulated information on the feed value of tropical resources is abundant. Access to data is not always easy because the publication strategies are often focused on a regional scale. Information can be partial (some criteria of chemical composition). The results can be strongly linked to the context in which they were produced, which limits their generalisation. An important step for the future is the collection of these data with the prospect of generating such general laws. This would be possible through the current FV table project (AFZ-INRA-CIRAD).

Faye B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Faye B.,Montpellier SupAgro | Alexandre G.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques | And 16 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

The requirements of quality concern the same regulations for the consumers of the South as well as the North. However, the context of southern countries in terms of climatic conditions as well as sociological or economic leads to differentiated positions. The context of the South returns to the need for setting up specific control systems, and for establishing standards according to the concerned markets. The characterization of the livestock products specific to tropical countries (for example creole animal meat in the West Indies or camel milk in the Middle East) is a step to precisely tackle the question of the standards applicable in southern countries. Quality consequently becomes a social construction effectively being be based on a participative approach implying all the stakeholders of a sector. Lastly, it is advisable to distinguish the niches from the market concerned, international, local or regional, with southern countries being able to adapt accordingly as with the cattle market in southern Africa.

Dedieu B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dedieu B.,Agro ParisTech | Dedieu B.,IRSTEA | Aubin J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 18 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

The processes for designing and evaluating innovative livestock systems in warm regions must take the specificities of these systems into account. In addition to the characteristics of the surrounding environment, these specific features are due to the non-productive functions of the livestock (savings bank on the hoof) and the complexity of management methods (in particular mobility) and are about who is «at the helm». We discuss approaches to design, with notions of crystallisation, plasticity and development and we present the bases of the evaluation (environmental, chain, technico-economic) and its functions in the design process. We illustrate rule-based or innovative design supported by modelling, using examples in the West Indies (goat farming, mixed crop-livestock farming, with a strong biotechnical component), in La Réunion (dairy farming with a participative approach with farmers for building the model) and in Amazonia (decisional component including balances and interaction between farming and cropping activitiesparti-cipative approach with territorial players). The diversity of cases underlines the stakes involved in design and evaluation: taking account of the diversity of systems in their technical and human components, participation of players in the approach, biotechnical developments and clarification of decisional processes, and thought given to indicators that are appropriate and relevant for livestock farmers.

Mandonnet N.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques | Tillard E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tillard E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Tillard E.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 12 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

The question of adaptation of animals to the tropical environment has become a major challenge for the livestock sector and the scientific community. In harsh areas, the sustainability of farming systems is based on the ability of animals to survive, reproduce and maintain productivity under climatic, food or health constraints. In monogastrics and ruminants, the anatomical characteristics and feeding behavior are key factors regulating heat exchanges (small-size, decrease in subcutaneous fat mass, reduction in feed intake and physical activity). Level of basal metabolic rate, digestive efficiency, ability to utilize lower quality feeds, body reserves mobilization, nutrient recycling and water use efficiency are the main physiological traits of adaptation to underfeeding in ruminants. The most significant works on disease genetic resistance relate to trypanotolerance in African livestock, resistance to ticks or tick-borne diseases like heartwater and resistance to gastrointestinal strongyles. In modern farming systems, management of these environmental constraints must be considered in an integrated framework. Various feeding, environment and health management practices must be combined to reduce risk and maximize productivity. However, sustainable development of livestock production in tropical areas cannot be guaranteed without using the adaptation traits of native animal populations or at least without including adaptation traits in selection program for local and exotic breeds.

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