AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012
Quantum nonlocality is presented often as the most remarkable and inexplicable phenomenon known to modern science. It has been known already for a long time that the probabilistic models used to prove Bell and Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequalities (BI-CHSH) for spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCE) are incompatible with the experimental protocols of SPCE. In particular these models use the same common probability space, joint probability distributions and/or conditional independence to describe coincidence experiments in incompatible experimental settings. Strangely enough these results are not known or simply neglected. This is why we will once again reanalyze Bell locality assumptions and show that they have nothing to do with the notion of Einsteinian locality therefore their violation should not be called quantum nonlocality but rather quantum non-Kolmogorovness or quantum contextuality. Moreover if local variables describing the measuring instruments are correctly taken into account then BI-CHSH can no longer be proven and one can easily construct non-signaling probabilistic models able to reproduce the predictions of QT. The violation of BI-CHSH is considered usually as a proof that a quantum state is entangled. Since BI-CHSH are violated also in some experiments from outside the domain of quantum physics therefore the entanglement is not exclusively a quantum phenomenon. In order to further demystify these notions we show that one can prepare two macroscopic systems in such a way that simple realizable local experiments on these systems violate BI. In view of these arguments the further testing of BI-CHSH inequalities in search for the loopholes does not seem to be necessary. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016
Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced in irreducible random way. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
International Journal of Quantum Information | Year: 2016
Entangled physical systems are an important resource in quantum information. Many papers were published trying to grasp the meaning of entanglement. It was noticed that a Hilbert space of possible state vectors of compound physical system can be partitioned by introducing various tensor product structures induced by the experimentally accessible observables (interactions and measurements). In this sense, the entanglement is relative to a particular set of experimental capabilities. Inspired by these results some authors claim that in fact all quantum states are entangled. In this paper, we show that this claim is incorrect and we discuss in operational way differences existing between separable and entangled states. A sufficient condition for entanglement is the violation of Bell–CHSH-CH inequalities and/or steering inequalities. Since there exist experiments outside the domain of quantum physics violating these inequalities therefore in the operational approach one cannot say that the entanglement is an exclusive quantum phenomenon. We also explain that an unambiguous experimental certification of the entanglement is a difficult task because classical statistical significance tests may not be trusted if sample homogeneity cannot be tested or is not tested carefully enough. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2014
The entanglement and the violation of Bell and CHSH inequalities in spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCE) is considered to be one of the biggest mysteries of Nature and is called quantum nonlocality. In this paper we show once again that this conclusion is based on imprecise terminology and on the lack of understanding of probabilistic models used in various proofs of Bell and CHSH theorems. These models are inconsistent with experimental protocols used in SPCE. This is the only reason why Bell and CHSH inequalities are violated. A probabilistic non-signalling description of SPCE, consistent with quantum predictions, is possible and it depends explicitly on the context of each experiment. It is also deterministic in the sense that the outcome is determined by supplementary local parameters describing both physical signals and measuring instruments. The existence of such description gives additional arguments that quantum theory is emergent from some more detailed theory respecting causality and local determinism. If quantum theory is emergent then there exist perhaps some fine structures in time-series of experimental data which were not predicted by quantum theory. In this paper we explain how a systematic search for such fine structures can be done. If such reproducible fine structures were found it would show that quantum theory is not predictably complete, which would be a major discovery. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010
This survey paper aims mainly at giving computer scientists a rapid bird's eye view, from a mathematician's perspective, of the main statistical methods used in order to extract knowledge from databases comprising various types of observations. After touching briefly upon the matters of supervision, data regularization and a brief review of the main models, the key issues of model assessment, selection and inference are perused. Finally, specific statistical problems arising from applications around data mining and warehousing are explored. Examples and applications are chosen mainly from the vast collection of image and video retrieval, indexation and classification challenges facing us today. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.