Cobb B.S.,University of Iowa |
Coryell W.H.,University of Iowa |
Cavanaugh J.,University of Iowa |
Keller M.,Brown University |
And 6 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Objectives Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort - the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS).Methods The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up.Results A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January.Conclusions There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source
Leon A.C.,New York Medical College |
Solomon D.A.,Brown University |
Solomon D.A.,UpToDate Inc. |
Li C.,New York Medical College |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Objective: The 2007 revision of the black box warning for suicidality with antidepressants states that patients of all ages who initiate antidepressants should be monitored for clinical worsening or suicidality. The objective of this study was to examine the association of antidepressants with suicide attempts and with suicide deaths. Method: A longitudinal, observational study of mood disorders with prospective assessments for up to 27 years was conducted at 5 US academic medical centers. The study sample included 757 participants who enrolled from 1979 to 1981 during an episode of mania, depression, or schizoaffective disorder, each based on Research Diagnostic Criteria. Unlike randomized controlled clinical trials of antidepressants, the analyses included participants with psychiatric and other medical comorbidity and those receiving acute or maintenance therapy, polypharmacy, or no psychopharmacologic treatment at all. Over follow-up, these participants had 6,716 time periods that were classified as either exposed to an antidepressant or not exposed. Propensity score-adjusted mixed-effects survival analyses were used to examine risk of suicide attempt or suicide, the primary outcome. Results: The propensity model showed that antidepressant therapy was significantly more likely when participants' symptom severity was greater (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21; z = 8.22; P .001) or when it was worsening (OR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.50-1.89; z = 9.02; P < .001). Quintile-stratified, propensity-adjusted safety analyses using mixed-effects grouped-time survival models indicate that the risk of suicide attempts or suicides was reduced by 20% among participants taking antidepressants (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.95; z = -2.54; P = .011). Conclusions: This longitudinal study of a broadly generalizable cohort found that, although those with more severe affective syndromes were more likely to initiate treatment, antidepressants were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of suicidal behavior. Nonetheless, we believe that clinicians must closely monitor patients when an antidepressant is initiated. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. Source
Uptodate Inc. | Date: 1993-03-30
UpToDate Inc. | Date: 2013-07-03
UpToDate Inc. | Date: 2002-10-15
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