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Dijon, France

Immel F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Immel F.,University of Burgundy | Broussard C.,University of Paris Descartes | Catherinet B.,University of Burgundy | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is a well-established invasive model organism. Although extensively used in environmental sciences, virtually nothing is known of the molecular process of its shell calcification. By describing the microstructure, geochemistry and biochemistry/proteomics of the shell, the present study aims at promoting this species as a model organism in biomineralization studies, in order to establish a bridge with ecotoxicology, while sketching evolutionary conclusions. The shell of D. polymorpha exhibits the classical crossed-lamellar/complex crossed lamellar combination found in several heterodont bivalves, in addition to an external thin layer, the characteristics of which differ from what was described in earlier publication. We show that the shell selectively concentrates some heavy metals, in particular uranium, which predisposes D. polymorpha to local bioremediation of this pollutant. We establish the biochemical signature of the shell matrix, demonstrating that it interacts with the in vitro precipitation of calcium carbonate and inhibits calcium carbonate crystal formation, but these two properties are not strongly expressed. This matrix, although overall weakly glycosylated, contains a set of putatively calcium-binding proteins and a set of acidic sulphated proteins. 2D-gels reveal more than fifty proteins, twenty of which we identify by MS-MS analysis. We tentatively link the shell protein profile of D. polymorpha and the peculiar recent evolution of this invasive species of Ponto-Caspian origin, which has spread all across Europe in the last three centuries. © 2016 Immel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Marie B.,University of Burgundy | Zanella-Cleon I.,University of Lyon | Corneillat M.,UPSP PROXISS | Becchi M.,University of Lyon | And 5 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2011

In molluscs, and more generally in metazoan organisms, the production of a calcified skeleton is a complex molecular process that is regulated by the secretion of an extracellular organic matrix. This matrix constitutes a cohesive and functional macromolecular assemblage, containing mainly proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides that, together, control the biomineral formation. These macromolecules interact with the extruded precursor mineral ions, mainly calcium and bicarbonate, to form complex organo-mineral composites of well-defined microstructures. For several reasons related to its remarkable mechanical properties and to its high value in jewelry, nacre is by far the most studied molluscan shell microstructure and constitutes a key model in biomineralization research. To understand the molecular mechanism that controls the formation of the shell nacreous layer, we have investigated the biochemistry of Nautilin-63, one of the main nacre matrix proteins of the cephalopod Nautilus macromphalus. After purification of Nautilin-63 by preparative electrophoresis, we demonstrate that this soluble protein is glycine-aspartate-rich, that it is highly glycosylated, that its sugar moieties are acidic, and that it is able to bind chitin in vitro. Interestingly, Nautilin-63 strongly interacts with the morphology of CaCO 3 crystals precipitated in vitro but, unexpectedly, it exhibits an extremely weak ability to inhibit in vitro the precipitation of CaCO 3. The partial resolution of its amino acid sequence by de novo sequencing of its tryptic peptides indicates that Nautilin-63 exhibits short collagenous-like domains. Owing to specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified protein, Nautilin-63 was immunolocalized mainly in the intertabular nacre matrix. In conclusion, Nautilin-63 exhibits 'hybrid' biochemical properties that are found both in the soluble and insoluble proteins, rendering it difficult to classify according to the standard view on nacre proteins. Database âThe protein sequences of N63 appear on the UniProt Knowledgebase under accession number. To understand the molecular mechanism that controls the formation of the shell nacreous layer, we have investigated here the biochemistry of Nautilin-63, one of the main nacre matrix proteins of the cephalopod Nautilus macromphalus. In conclusion, Nautilin-63 exhibits 'hybrid' biochemical properties, found both in soluble and insoluble proteins, a fact that renders it difficult to classify according to the standard view on nacre proteins. © 2011 FEBS. Source

Ramos-Silva P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ramos-Silva P.,University of Amsterdam | Benhamada S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Le Roy N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 9 more authors.
ChemBioChem | Year: 2012

The formation of the molluskan shell is regulated by an array of extracellular proteins secreted by the calcifying epithelial cells of the mantle. These proteins remain occluded within the recently formed biominerals. To date, many shell proteins have been retrieved, but only a few of them, such as nacreins, have clearly identified functions. In this particular case, by combining molecular biology and biochemical approaches, we performed the molecular characterization of a novel protein that we named Upsalin, associated with the nacreous shell of the freshwater mussel Unio pictorum. The full sequence of the upsalin transcript was obtained by RT-PCR and 5′/3′ RACE, and the expression pattern of the transcript was studied by PCR and qPCR. Upsalin is a 12 kDa protein with a basic theoretical pI. The presence of Upsalin in the shell was demonstrated by extraction of the acetic-acid-soluble nacre matrix, purification of a shell protein fraction by mono-dimensional preparative SDS-PAGE, and by submitting this fraction, after trypsic digestion, to nano-LC-MS/MS. In vitro experiments with the purified protein showed that it interferes poorly with the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Homology searches also could not affiliate Upsalin to any other protein of known function, leaving open the question of its exact role in shell formation. An antibody raised against an immunogenic peptide of Upsalin was found to be specific to this protein and was subsequently assayed for immunogold localization of the target protein in the shell, revealing the ubiquitous presence of Upsalin in the nacreous and prismatic layers. Recently, with the application of high-throughput proteomic studies to shells, the number of candidate proteins without clear functions has been increasing exponentially. The Upsalin example highlights the crucial need, for the scientific community dealing with biomineralization in general, to dedicate the coming years to designing experimental approaches, such as gene silencing, that focus on the functions of mineral-associated proteins. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Kanold J.M.,University of Stuttgart | Immel F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Broussard C.,University of Paris Descartes | Guichard N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2015

In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Bourque S.,University of Burgundy | Bourque S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bourque S.,University Paul Sabatier | Dutartre A.,University of Burgundy | And 8 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

• Plant resistance to pathogen attack is often associated with a localized programmed cell death called hypersensitive response (HR). How this cell death is controlled remains largely unknown. • Upon treatment with cryptogein, an elicitor of tobacco defence and cell death, we identified NtHD2a and NtHD2b, two redundant isoforms of type-2 nuclear histone deacetylases (HDACs). These HDACs are phosphorylated after a few minutes' treatment, and their rate of mRNAs are rapidly and strongly reduced, leading to a 40-fold decrease after10h of treatment. • By using HDAC inhibitors, RNAi- and overexpression-based approaches, we showed that HDACs, and especially NtHD2a/b, act as inhibitors of cryptogein-induced cell death. Moreover, in NtHD2a/b-silenced plants, infiltration with cryptogein led to HR-like symptoms in distal leaves. • Taken together, these results show for the first time that type-2 HDACs, which are specific to plants, act as negative regulators of elicitor-induced cell death in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), suggesting that the HR is controlled by post-translational modifications including (de)acetylation of nuclear proteins. © 2011 New Phytologist Trust. Source

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