Angers, France
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Zouid I.,UPSP GRAPPE | Siret R.,UPSP GRAPPE | Mehinagic E.,UPSP GRAPPE | Maury C.,UPSP GRAPPE | And 2 more authors.
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2010

Aims: The aim of this work was to study the evolution of grape berries during ripening and investigate the possible relationship between the extractability of anthocyanins from grapes and their rheological properties.Methods and results: Cabernet Franc grapes belonging to three different vineyards were harvested weekly from 10 September to 8 October 2007. Their mechanical behavior was measured by compression and puncture tests and the evolution of anthocyanin extractability was monitored during ripening. Significant differences were found in grape textural attributes and anthocyanin content due to the ripening stage and type of vineyard. A multivariate regression model was built to explain the evolution of anthocyanin extractability, by using the mechanical attributes of grape berries as variables.Conclusion: Our results show that differences in the easiness of anthocyanin extraction from grapes could be linked to differences in the mechanical behavior of berries and that the extraction yield of anthocyanins from grapes could be predicted by their rheological properties. To confirm this first hypothesis, further studies with a larger number of vintages and vineyards would be necessary to link the mechanical properties of grape berries, established at macroscopic scale, to the susceptibility of anthocyanin extraction from grape skin.Significance and impact of the study: The need to understand the evolution of the mechanical behavior of winegrapes during ripening and its impact on the release of anthocyanins is important for wine quality control. Understanding the evolution of the material properties of grapes is essential for developing better approaches to improve grape quality and could help winemakers to hoose the best time of harvest and the process best adapted to the wine quality desired.


Renaud-Gentie C.,UPSP GRAPPE | Burgos S.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins | Benoit M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

Diversity of agricultural systems can be described at different scales in terms of three main types of variables: technical management of cropping systems, farming systems and food supply chains. We focus on the diversity of technical management routes (TMRs), defined as logical successions of technical options (TOs) designed by the farmers. The study, comparison and assessment of this great diversity of complex routes are impossible with classical agronomic experiments or exhaustive assessments such as life cycle assessment (LCA). Hence, the selection of representative cases is necessary. Multidimensional data analysis methods permit the characterization of a diversity of TMRs and the construction of typologies but do not allow the consideration of the specific associations of TOs constituting the various TMRs.The aim of this paper is threefold: (i) to propose a new combined method, "Typ-iti", to classify the field TMRs of farmers, to identify key TO associations and to select the most relevant cases for study; (ii) to test this method on vineyard management diversity using a panel of vineyard fields of Loire Valley producers; and (iii) to discuss the capability of the proposed Typ-iti method for use in the characterization and selection of cases of other agricultural systems at diverse scales.The example developed in this paper is the selection of vineyard management cases for grape LCA combined with grape quality evaluation. The cases were selected to represent the regional diversity of management practices. A detailed on-farm survey of management methods was performed on a diverse range of wine production estates in the Middle Loire Valley. The Typ-iti method was constructed and implemented on the survey database. It combines a multidimensional analysis of qualitative survey data and typology and partitioning (clustering) associated with data mining methods (frequent pattern mining search and association rules).The surveyed sample was partitioned into 5 types of management practices, 2 of which were organic and 3 conventional. The partitioning was driven primarily by choices involving pest management and floor management. Each type was characterized by specific TOs, specific associations of TOs and remarkable TMRs. The cases were chosen on the basis of these 3 parameters.The Typ-iti method can be applied to other crops and at different scales; the only limitation is the availability of precise information on the practices used by farmers in their fields. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Bailly N.,University of Tours | Maitre I.,UPSP GRAPPE | Wymelbeke V.V.,Unite de Recherche Service de Medecine Geriatrique
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2015

Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | University of Tours, UPSP GRAPPE and Unite de Recherche Service de Medecine Geriatrique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics | Year: 2015

Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed.


Renaud-Gentie C.,UPSP GRAPPE | Dijkman T.J.,Technical University of Denmark | Bjorn A.,Technical University of Denmark | Birkved M.,Technical University of Denmark
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2015

Purpose: Consumption of high quantities of pesticides in viticulture emphasizes the importance of including pesticide emissions and impacts hereof in viticulture LCAs. This paper addresses the lack of inventory models and characterization factors suited for the quantification of emissions and ecotoxicological impacts of pesticides applied to viticulture. The paper presents (i) a tailored version of PestLCI 2.0, (ii) corresponding characterization factors for freshwater ecotoxicity characterization and (iii) result comparison with other inventory approaches. The purpose of this paper is hence to present a viticulture customized version of PestLCI 2.0 and illustrate the application of this customized version on a viticulture case study. Methods: The customization of the PestLCI 2.0 model for viticulture includes (i) addition of 29 pesticide active ingredients commonly used in vineyards, (ii) addition of 9 viticulture type specific spraying equipment and accounting the number of rows treated in one pass, and (iii) accounting for mixed canopy (vine/cover crop) pesticide interception. Applying USEtox™, the PestLCI 2.0 customization is further supported by the calculation of freshwater ecotoxicity characterization factors for active ingredients relevant for viticulture. Case studies on three different vineyard technical management routes illustrate the application of the inventory model. The inventory and freshwater ecotoxicity results are compared to two existing simplified emission modelling approaches. Results and discussion: The assessment results show considerably different emission fractions, quantities emitted and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts between the different active ingredient applications. Three out of 21 active ingredients dominate the overall freshwater ecotoxicity: Aclonifen, Fluopicolide and Cymoxanil. The comparison with two simplified emission modelling approaches, considering field soil and air as part of the ecosphere, shows that PestLCI 2.0 yields considerable lower emissions and, consequently, lower freshwater ecotoxicity. The sensitivity analyses reveal the importance of soil and climate characteristics, canopies (vine and cover crop) development and sprayer type on the emission results. These parameters should therefore be obtained with site-specific data, while literature or generic data that are acceptable inputs for parameters whose uncertainties have less influence on the result. Conclusions: Important specificities of viticulture have been added to the state-of-the-art inventory model PestLCI 2.0. They cover vertically trained vineyards, the most common vineyard training form; they are relevant for other perennial or bush crops provided equipment, shape of the canopy and pesticide active ingredients stay in the range of available options. A similar and compatible model is needed for inorganic pesticide active ingredients emission quantification, especially for organic viticulture impacts accounting. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | University of Lleida and UPSP GRAPPE
Type: | Journal: Food science and technology international = Ciencia y tecnologia de los alimentos internacional | Year: 2016

This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of Mondial Gala and Granny Smith apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. Mondial Gala fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than Granny Smith apples. Pectin methylesterase activity levels in Mondial Gala apples were enhanced at mild temperatures and pectins in this cultivar displayed a lower degree of methylation. Therefore, the establishment of calcium-mediated linkages between cell wall polymers might have been favoured in Mondial Gala apples, thus reinforcing tissues and improving the preservation of textural attributes, in comparison to Granny Smith samples.

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