Montpellier, France


Montpellier, France
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Mercat M.,University Paris Diderot | Mercat M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Clermont O.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Massot M.,University Paris Diderot | And 14 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2016

At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/ animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Gomo C.,Central Veterinary Laboratory | Gomo C.,University of Zimbabwe | de Garine-Wichatitsky M.,UPR AGIRs | de Garine-Wichatitsky M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in communal cattle and wildlife at a wildlife-livestock interface in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe, part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area. RBT and c-Elisa were used in serial for detection of antibodies against Brucella spp. Between July 2007 and October 2009, a total of 1,158 cattle were tested and the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 9.9%. A total of 97 wild animals (African buffaloes (n = 47), impala (n = 33), kudu (n = 16), and giraffe (n = 1)) were tested and only one animal (giraffe) was seropositive for brucellosis (1.03%). Brucella seroprevalence showed an increasing trend with age, with adult cattle (>6 years) recording the highest seroprevalence (11.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, female cattle recorded a relatively higher seroprevalence (10.8%) compared to males (7.9%), but the difference was not significant. However, a significant (P < 0.001) association between Brucella seropositivity and abortion history was recorded in female cattle. Similarly, Brucella seropositivity was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with a history of grazing in the park for female cattle. Overall, from the interface area, cattle with a history of grazing in the park recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) higher Brucella seroprevalence (13.5%) compared to those with no history of grazing in the park (4.9%). The significant association between abortion history and seropositivity observed in this study illustrates the potential economic significance of Brucella in cattle in this area. Hence, public awareness and further epidemiological studies of the disease in wildlife, livestock, and humans in the study area are of great importance. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zengeya F.M.,University of Zimbabwe | Murwira A.,University of Zimbabwe | De Garine-Wichatitsky M.,UPR AGIRs | De Garine-Wichatitsky M.,University of Zimbabwe
Austral Ecology | Year: 2014

Understanding factors that influence habitat selection in heterogeneous landscapes is fundamental for establishing realistic models on animal distribution to inform rangeland management. In this study, we tested whether seasonal variation in habitat selection within the home range of a large herbivore was influenced by constraints such as, distances from water and central place using semi-free range cattle (Bos taurus) as a case study. We also tested whether shifts in space use over time were dependent on spatial scale and on the overall abundance of resources. We predicted that distance from water significantly influenced dry season habitat selection while the influence of the central place on habitat selection was season-independent. We also predicted that shifts in space use over time were spatial scale-dependent, and that large herbivores would include more diverse habitats in their home ranges during the dry season, when water and food resources are less abundant. Multinomial logit models were used to construct habitat selection models with distances from water and central place as habitat-specific constraints. Results showed significant variations in habitat selection between the dry and wet season. As predicted, the effect of distance from central place was season-independent, while the effect of water was not included in the top dry season models contrary to expectation. A diverse range of habitats were also selected during the dry season including agricultural fields. Results also indicated that shifts in space use were spatial scale dependent, with core areas being more sensitive to changes than the home range. In addition, shifts in space use responded to temporal changes in habitat composition. Overall, our results suggest that semi-free range herbivores adopt different foraging strategies in response to spatial-temporal changes in habitat availability. © 2014 Ecological Society of Australia.

Zengeya F.M.,University of Zimbabwe | Murwira A.,University of Zimbabwe | de Garine-Witchatitsky M.,UPR AGIRs | de Garine-Witchatitsky M.,University of Zimbabwe
Geocarto International | Year: 2015

Although global positioning system (GPS) location data have been used to derive animal movement parameters including step length, rarely have these parameters been used to predict animal responses to human interventions. In this study, we tested whether GPS-derived step length of semi-free range cattle is a function of herder presence. The derived step-length model was used to predict herder presence on independent cattle GPS collar data. We also tested whether cattle foraging behaviour is explained by herder activity and vegetation greenness. We used logistic regression to model herder presence as a function of step length and relate cattle behaviour with herder activity and vegetation greenness. The field-based step length model successfully predicted herder presence on GPS collar data. The average predicted frequency of herder presence for the GPS-collared herds was 31%, whilst the field-based GPS frequency was 27%. Herding activities and vegetation greenness also explained different cattle foraging behaviour. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Caron A.,UPR AGIRs | Caron A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Caron A.,University of Pretoria | de Garine-Wichatitsky M.,UPR AGIRs | And 4 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2010

The ecology of host species is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and spread in complex multi-host systems. In this article, we use detailed observations of the host community to develop and apply a new approach to mapping temporal variation in risk for avian influenza. Working in an extensive wetland system near Harare, Zimbabwe, we use the overlap in space and time of highly variable bird communities, combined with ecological risk factors, to assess the risk of Avian Influenza viruses (AIV) maintenance and transmission between bird populations. The estimated introduction and maintenance risks associated with waterfowl populations at a given time are then multiplied by the level of interactions with neighboring domestic production systems during the same period. This approach is used to develop hypotheses for the dynamics of the introduction and circulation of AIV strains in waterfowl populations and as a way of understanding the potential role of "bridge" species at the wild/ domestic interface. The novel approach presented here offers a potentially useful way to explore AIV risk, identify which wild bird species may be acting as reservoirs or vectors of pathogens at a local scale, and improve local surveillance. © 2010 by the author(s).

Cumming G.S.,University of Cape Town | Caron A.,UPR AGIRs | Caron A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Caron A.,University of Pretoria | And 10 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2011

Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are pathogens of global concern, but there has been little previous research on avian influenza in southern Africa and almost nothing is known about the dynamics of AIVs in the region. We counted, captured and sampled birds regularly at five sites, two in South Africa (Barberspan and Strandfontein) and one in each of Botswana (Lake Ngami), Mozambique (Lake Chuali) and Zimbabwe (Lakes Manyame and Chivero) between March 2007 and May 2009. The South African and Zimbabwean sites were visited every 2 months and the sites in Botswana and Mozambique every 4 months. During each visit we undertook 5-7 days of standardised bird counts followed by 5-10 days of capturing and sampling water-associated birds. We sampled 4,977 birds of 165 different species and completed 2,503 half-hour point counts. We found 125 positive rRT-PCR cases of avian influenza across all sites. Two viruses (H1N8 and H3N8) were isolated and additional H5, H6 and H7 strains were identified. We did not positively identify any highly pathogenic H5N1. Overall viral prevalence (2.51%) was similar to the lower range of European values, considerable spatial and temporal variation occurred in viral prevalence, and there was no detectable influence of the annual influx of Palearctic migrants. Although waterbirds appear to be the primary viral carriers, passerines may link wild birds and poultry. While influenza cycles are probably driven by the bird movements that result from rainfall patterns, the epidemiology of avian influenza in wild birds in the subregion is complex and there appears to be the possibility for viral transmission throughout the year. © 2011 International Association for Ecology and Health.

Caron A.,UPR AGIRs | Caron A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Caron A.,University of Pretoria | Abolnik C.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute | And 9 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2011

Waterfowl were counted and sampled in a Zimbabwean wetland over 24 months. LPAI strains were detected during 20 consecutive months, providing evidence of regional yearly persistence of LPAI. We discuss the role of Afro-tropical ducks in viral maintenance and transmission, and attempt to explain the observed patterns. © 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

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