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Skorupski J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Upper Silesian Aviation Group
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2016

The passenger and baggage security in airport screening system is one of the most important factors that determine air transport safety and security. It prevents objects and materials that could be used to commit an act of unlawful interference from being placed on board an aircraft. The security screening system consists of x-ray screening devices, walk-through metal detectors and specialised software. However, a key element of the security screening system is the human - the security screener (SSc). The equipment and software helps the screener to find prohibited items, but also detects and records his/her errors. The whole security control point (SCP) can be regarded as a complex socio-technical system. It's effectiveness is dependent, inter alia, on the type of x-ray devices used, a variant of SCP organisation or the technical condition of the equipment, but mainly on the quality of the security screeners' work. Special attention is paid to the types of errors and their frequency. We analyze the quantitative relationships between types of errors and also between the frequency of errors and the frequency of virtual threat images projection (TIP). This last technology is a kind of intelligent support system and at the same time verifies the screener's work. The study was based on measurements under real conditions at the Katowice-Pyrzowice International Airport. In the framework of this research two basic types of errors made by SSc were identified. The results show that the number of errors is dependent from the frequency of the stimulus, represented by TIP images. As a result, it was possible to determine the recommended frequency of threat images projections. The study is supplemented by a comparison of the screeners' effectiveness in laboratory conditions against real conditions, while working at the security control point.

Skorupski J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Upper Silesian Aviation Group
Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2014 | Year: 2015

An airport is a complex engineering system; it is composed of many elements interconnected with numerous internal relations with a strongly pronounced role of the human factor. One of the specific tasks carried out by the Airport Managing Entity (AME) is to configure the Airport Security System (ApSS) so that to attain the expected level of confidence in the airport safety and security. This task consists in selection of infrastructure, technical equipment, allocation of personnel and financial means that are necessary to perform all functions of the ApSS. One of the aspects of the configuration of the ApSS is the allocation of available x-ray baggage screening devices searching for items prohibited for transportation. To make this allocation, we need to know how effective these devices are (in terms of detecting prohibited items). This assessment is dependent on several factors which are treated as linguistic variables and are input to fuzzy inference system: the ability to detect explosives (linguistic variable Detectability), the number of detection lines (linguistic variable Number of detection lines), the effectiveness of the TIP (Threat Image Projection) system (linguistic variable TIP evaluation) and the age of the machine (linguistic variable Device age). Some of these elements are difficult to objective assessment, as they are heavily dependent on the human factor or the information is uncertain and incomplete. So fuzzy ApSS analysis is proposed. The output from the fuzzy inference system is linguistic variable Device evaluation. The meaning of this variable is the ability to protect the aircraft against prohibited items. The proposed new method of assessing the airport baggage screening system involves the construction of a hierarchical fuzzy inference system. Such a system has been built with the use of the compositional fuzzy inference rule. The usefulness of the method is exemplified for Katowice-Pyrzowice international airport, for which an assessment of devices has been performed. The results show that not only allocation of specific devices for specific control points is important for the security of passengers. Also important are the locally accepted principles of their work, which so far are not specified by international regulations. This applies for instance to the selection of the number (frequency) of TIP images. Preliminary analyzes show that the proposed approach can be effective as part of an expert system for supporting the airport operator in configuring ApSS. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group.

Skorupski J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Upper Silesian Aviation Group
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2016

Elements of air transport infrastructure as well as passengers and aircraft are constantly at risk of terrorist attack. One of the most important preventative methods is the security control of persons and baggage at airports. Managing this process requires finding a compromise between high capacity of the terminal and the high effectiveness of the security control. The purpose of this study is to show the applicability of an expert system, which assists security managers in deciding how to organise the security screening process. Due to the important role of the human factor, the need to use expert's opinions and the high uncertainty and imprecise nature of information, the developed model and computer tool FUPSCA (FUzzy Passenger Security Control Assessment) uses the fuzzy sets theory and a fuzzy inference system. It's use allows us to adjust the operating parameters of the security screening checkpoint, namely the WTMD sensitivity, number of employees and the frequency of manual controls, to the current level of terrorist threat. As a result of the study it was found that if we want to achieve higher security control effectiveness we should first increase the WTMD's sensitivity and only then increase the frequency of additional manual controls and not the other way round. Of course the FUPSCA system provides specific, quantitative answers. In the future it will be necessary to manage the operation of the passenger security control system using multi-criteria evaluations of: capacity, effectiveness, passenger comfort. FUPSCA will be able to effectively support this process. © 2015, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Skorupski J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Upper Silesian Aviation Group
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2015

The growing threat of unlawful interference and terrorist acts has led to widespread implementation of screening systems for checking people and baggage at airports. Introducing limits regarding objects permitted to be transported and screening procedures themselves have decreased the comfort of travelling and reduced the capacity of terminals. It is therefore important to examine the efficiency of screening, whether carried out under regular circumstances or in a situation where threat level is high. The purpose of this study is to develop an effective method and calculation tool making it possible to quickly and exactly determine the effectiveness of cabin baggage screening, depending on the equipment available, the choice of screening staff, and the organisational solutions applied. What is more, the human factor is of great significance as far as cabin baggage screening is concerned. It introduces a certain amount of subjectivity, imprecision, and incompleteness of description. Due to this, fuzzy reasoning solutions have been employed. The results indicate that it is possible for the efficiency of cabin baggage screening to vary significantly at various screening checkpoints (SC), even within one airport. It is also demonstrated that it is possible to actually manage the level of screening efficiency, also in a situation where the risk of an attack is greater than usual. One should avoid taking global decisions and, instead, focus on assessing screening at particular SCs and take steps on the basis of the results of such an assessment. Results obtained with the use of a computer tool under the name of COBAFAS demonstrate that it is then possible to improve the efficiency of screening without hindering the capacity of the airport at the same time. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Skorupski J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Warsaw University of Technology | Uchronski P.,Upper Silesian Aviation Group
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2015

A baggage screening system is one of the factors that determine air transport security. It prevents objects and materials that could be used to commit an act of unlawful interference from being placed on board an aircraft. The aim of this paper was to present a model and a computer system supporting the management of a security screening checkpoint's organisation at an airport. This model was to take into account the role of the human factor in this process, in particular of many subjective factors that influence the effectiveness of an airport security system, such as an employee's experience, level of training or attitude to the work he/she does. The studied process involves numerous dependencies which are intuitive and subjective in character and which cannot be unequivocally described. Therefore, a fuzzy model and a fuzzy inference system were created because they are suitable for analysing decision-making processes in the context of uncertainty. The model was parameterized based on expert assessments as well as measurements and experiments that had been carried out at the Katowice-Pyrzowice airport. The model and the computer system that have been developed make it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of airport security screeners in detecting prohibited items in baggage. The experiments made it possible to evaluate individual employees and groups of employees working during the same shift. The tools that had been obtained allowed us to make a recommendation that comprehensive training sessions should be organised every 12 months and ongoing training sessions should be held every 6 months. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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