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News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A group of researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and the Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) in Barcelona, Spain, have developed a new technology that sheds light on the HIV infection and offers a first glance at the expression landscape of the HIV in the human genome. After entering the genome of an infected cell, a fraction of the viruses becomes dormant and hence escapes detection by our immune system. These viruses escape therapy treatment and remain a threat for the patient because, at a later time, they will spontaneously awaken and restart the infection cycle. Many current therapies and available drugs aim to reactivate latent HIV in the hope of clearing the latent virus population. Unfortunately, none of the proposed therapies have proved as yet effective to cure infected patients. Foreign viral DNA is silenced in the human genome by the host chromatin, which is a complex of DNA and proteins wrapping and condensing the DNA to form chromosomes. Chromatin silencing is mediated by several mechanisms and now a team of researchers led by Guillaume Filion, group leader of the Genome Architecture laboratory at the CRG, have developed a technology aimed at discovering the role of the chromatin silencing in the response of latent HIV to the currently available drugs. As reported in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology today, they developed a technology called B-HIVE, which allowed them to map the HIV inserts within the human genome as well as to measure their expression levels. "We barcoded a population of viruses with a genetic identifier. With the barcodes, we were able to link an individual virus to its chromosomal location" explains Filion, the leading author of this study. Genetic barcoding works like the barcodes of food products in supermarkets: after all the items are labeled, each individual item can be identified by its specific code. "Also, we were able to measure their expression levels and showed that the response of HIV to reactivation therapies partly depends on the integration site in the human genome. For the first time, it shows the practical relevance of the chromatin context in the fight against HIV", states the researcher. With the use of this new technology, the researchers were able to show that different HIV reactivation drugs reactivate HIV from different locations within the chromosome. In other words, these drugs are more selective than previously thought. "Having this technique in hand, we can now search for the best drug mix that can reactivate all the latent viruses that up to now were hiding from the antiretroviral drugs in use today and make them susceptible to destruction. Our study suggests to orient future investigations towards the development of drugs with complementary targets" says Heng-Chang Chen, CRG researcher and first author of the study. "This is a big step forward and will definitely boost HIV cure research as well as our understanding of the dormant state of HIV called latency," adds enthusiastically Andreas Meyerhans, an HIV researcher co-authoring this paper and ICREA research professor at the UPF. The new genome-wide maps of HIV expression address a fundamental question that has so far remained unresolved and it provides insight into a basic principles of gene regulation. Hopes are that it will become a favourable and advantageous resource for data analysts interested in clinical applications. While exciting times seem to lay ahead for the researchers, society as a whole can now hope that this exceptional research will be translated into benefit for the community of HIV-infected individuals.


News Article | December 15, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Genomic analysis of the Iberian lynx confirms that it is one of the species with the least genetic diversity among individuals, which means that it has little margin for adaptation Spanish scientists have sequenced the genome of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), currently one of the world's most endangered felines. They have confirmed the "extreme erosion" suffered by its DNA. The Iberian lynx has one of the least genetically-diverse genomes. It is even less diverse than other endangered mammals, such as the cheetah or Tasmanian devil, or birds, like the crested ibis or osprey. The study, being published today in the scientific journal Genome Biology, has been coordinated by scientists from the Doñana Biological Station (CSIC). The Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) contributed to this research project from the very beginning including several groups and facilities. In particular, the laboratories of Roderic Guigó, Cedric Notredame, and Toni Gabaldón at the Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme as well as the CRG Bioinformatics unit. This is the first mammal genome of reference generated entirely in Spain. The project, financed by Banco Santander and managed by the Fundación General CSIC, has integrated the efforts of 50 scientists from research groups of 12 institutions, two of them from outside Spain, that cover a broad range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, genomics, oncology, evolution and conservation. The scientists have managed to read and organize 2.4 billion letters of DNA from Candiles, a male lynx born in the Sierra Morena lynx population, who now forms part of a program for breeding in captivity. To do so, they have used new sequencing techniques and developed innovative procedures to generate a high-quality draft genome on a limited budget. A total of 21,257 genes were identified, a number similar to that of human beings and other mammals, and they have been compared to those of cats, tigers, cheetahs and dogs. Specifically, Toni Gabaldón's group at the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona has compared the Iberian lynx genome with those of other species, attempting to identify genes that have lost their function because they have remained isolated and the existence of a small population of specimens of this species. Researchers have found evidence of modifications in genes related with the senses of hearing, sight and smell to facilitate the adaptation of the lynx to its environment, which have enabled them to become exceptional hunters specialized in rabbits as prey. History and diversity of the Iberian lynx With the aim of studying the history and genetic diversity of the species, analysis was conducted on the genomes of another ten Iberian lynxes from Doñana and Sierra Morena, the only two surviving populations on the Iberian Peninsula, which have been isolated from each other for decades. Researchers have also completed a comparative analysis with a European lynx, to discover the bonds between the two lynxes that inhabit Eurasia. The Iberian lynx began to diverge from its sister species, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) some 300,000 years ago, and the two species became completely separated some 2,500 years ago. Throughout that period, they continued to cross-breed and exchange genes, probably in the periods between glaciations, when the climatology allowed the species to spread and encounter each other on the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe. The demographic history of the Iberian lynx has been marked by three historic declines, the last of which took place some 300 years ago, decimating its population. In addition to this, there was a drastic drop in the number of specimens in the 20th century due to its persecution, the destruction of its habitat, and two major viral epidemics suffered by the rabbit, its main food source. Scientists have interpreted these demographic drops as the cause of the low levels of diversity observed, and warn that this could impair the lynx's capacity to adapt to changes in its environment (climate, disease, etc.). Furthermore, existence of multiple potentially harmful genetic variants has been confirmed, which could be contributing to the reduced survival and reproduction rates of the species. This genetic deterioration is especially marked in the Doñana population-smaller, and isolated for a longer period-which has half the genetic diversity of the Sierra Morena group. Nevertheless, the study reflects the situation before the exchange between the two relict populations and their inter-breeding in captivity were begun. These measures, taken within the Iberian lynx conservation program, have led to improvement of the species' genetic situation in recent years. The use of new genomic resources, within the framework of the project, will contribute to optimizing management aimed at preserving the greatest genetic diversity, in addition to diminishing these populations' genetic defects as much as possible. In addition to Doñana Biological Station (EBD-CSIC), also taking part in the project were the National Center for Genomic Analysis (CNAG-CRG); the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG); the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO); the Evolutionary Genomics Group of the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM); the Institute of Evolutionary Biology (IBE, CSIC-UPF); the University Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA); the Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina and the Unit of Cell Culture of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB); the Biological Research Center (CIB-CSIC) and the Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA). Furthermore, the project has received the cooperation of a team from College of Veterinary Medicine of Texas A&M University and the Bioinformatics Research Center of the University of Aarhus (Denmark).


News Article | December 19, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Why does exposure to rhythmic stimulation at certain frequencies facilitate the occurrence of epileptic seizures? In 1997, flickering patterns in an episode of the series Pokémon triggered epileptic seizures in nearly 700 Japanese children. These spontaneous outbreaks in apparently healthy children were linked to so-called "photosensitive epilepsy", a type of epilepsy in which seizures are the result of certain visual stimuli. Now researchers at Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) and the University of Exeter (UoE, UK) propose an explanation for the occurrence of epileptic seizures as a result of the exposure to certain stimuli. The study has been published in the journal NeuroImage. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost 50 million people worldwide suffer from it and 30% do not respond to treatment. The disorder is characterized by epileptic seizures - episodes of the uncontrolled, synchronized activity of neurons that can lead to loss of consciousness and other serious impairments of brain functioning. Considering the brain as a dynamic system allows engaging tools from engineering and physics in order to find out what factors lead to the occurrence of these highly synchronized epileptic discharges. The research by UPF, UPC and UoE has used a computational model of a cortical column - a putative basic functional unit of the cerebral cortex - to show that neuronal tissue displays epileptic-like activity when exposed to enhanced stimulation of certain frequencies. This increase may be due to the brain's own activity or a consequence of external stimulation, such as the flickering in the Pokémon cartoon. According to the research results, this behaviour stems from dynamic properties of the neuronal tissue, such as an ability to undergo resonance. Visual stimulation with frequencies close to alpha rhythm (which was the case of the flickering in Pokémon) may interfere with the natural alpha activity prevailing in the visual cortex leading to an increase of amplitude of the discharges and consequently to epileptic seizures. This resonance phenomenon can be compared to what happens when we push a swinging child. If we push it at the right moment, with a frequency equal to the swinging frequency, it will swing further and further and eventually may fall from the swing. This fall is an analogy to an epileptic crisis that may occur in the brain due to stimulation with a certain frequency. In the Pokémon series, the lights flashed at a frequency of 12Hz. "The alpha rhythm of the brain is 8-12Hz and the cartoons were showing exactly the alpha frequency of 12Hz. This phenomenon coincides with the results of our research", says the author of the study, Maciej Jedynak. Thus, a purely dynamic scenario can explain the susceptibility to driving with delta and theta rhythms, as well as a lack of susceptibility to very fast or very slow stimulation. The researchers showed how these phenomena manifest in the presence of random driving, which mimics the ongoing stimulation of a cortical column more faithfully than the periodic one. "This research provides further insight into ways that communication within brain networks can possibly lead to the occurrence of seizures" comments Marc Goodfellow, senior lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Exeter and leader of the study. According to Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, group leader of the Dynamical Systems Biology Lab at UPF and collaborator in the study, "this work shows that the temporal characteristics of the random activity of the brain can have profound effects on its behaviour". "In order to develop new alternative kinds of epilepsy treatment we need to understand more about the mechanisms underlying this disease", adds Jedynak, researcher at the same lab and the leading author of the article. "Our findings help to elucidate mechanisms of the generation and spreading of epileptic seizures in the brain. In the future they may improve the methodology of computational modelling aimed at devising tools for epilepsy treatment".


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

With on-trend style, easy shopping tools, coverage options and smart control, Lands' End helps women hit the beach with confidence DODGEVILLE, WI--(Marketwired - Mar 1, 2017) - One piece, tankini or bikini? Plus size, tall or petite? Perhaps a little tummy control? Lands' End ( : LE) now offers women more choices in swimwear -- and easy online shopping tools -- so they'll not only look great, but feel confident in their swimwear. Lands' End has launched its 2017 swim collection with on-trend styles designed with every body, taste and need in mind. Swimwear that Suits "Whether she's looking for swimwear with minimal coverage or targeted control, we want her to be confident -- to know that she's got a suit that uniquely suits her," said Pierre Colorado, divisional merchandise manager for swim, Lands' End. "We've created nine swim collections with endless options -- from cover-ups to control suits -- so that this swim season, there's truly something for every body." Dive Into Swim Lands' End swim is now easier to shop with an advanced, mobile-friendly Swim Finder tool providing personalized swimsuit recommendations based on body shape, silhouette, coverage, control and more. Women can also shop myriad styles that are available in sizes ranging from 0 to 26W, G-cup, petite, tall, tall plus, and mastectomy. With its largest assortment of two-piece bikini and tankini swimsuit options, Lands' End has also launched a new Mix & Match tool to build the perfect swimsuit. Whether by computer or mobile device, women can visually pair bikini and tankini tops with the collection's assortment of bottoms by simply scrolling back and forth between pieces, then selecting the color. Swimming in Style Nine complete swimwear collections offer style to suit any taste. From the feminine detailing in the Sea & Sky, Costa D'Oro and Lands' End Canvas collections to athletic styles in the LE Sport and AquaSport collections, women have more options in form and function. The Slender Suit® and Shape & Enhance™ collections feature comfortable control in modern silhouettes, prints and colors. Clever "line art" textured fabric in the Texture collection functions as swimwear camouflage, smoothing any shape. Build Your Perfect Suit with Beach Living® By far the largest collection from Lands' End swim, Beach Living offers an extensive assortment of tops and bottoms that customers can mix and match to create the perfect swim wardrobe. Beach Living takes women from the pool to the party with coordinating swim and cover-up options. As an added bonus, all Beach Living separates feature UPF 50 protection plus various control and bra options throughout. Among many new highlights, the flattering Squareneck Tankini is available in an on-trend Scuba Blue Foulard Stripe that features deep navy, lime and turquoise patterned stripes. A new Swim Tee in Deep Sea Placed Italian Floral places a beautiful yellow and blue floral print over a solid navy long-sleeved shirt. Swimwear Standouts Style abounds throughout the entire Lands' End swim collection. Several standout pieces in the Sea & Sky, LE Sport, Lands' End Canvas and Costa D'Oro push the style quotient. High-neck bikini tops, reversible print/solid fabrics, cropped rash guards, cut-out monokinis, wrap-around and lace-up details make the Sea & Sky collection the fashion leader. Inspired by the Italian coast, the Costa D'Oro collection features striking florals, feminine details such as ruffles, and high-waist bikini bottoms to help her freshen any swim wardrobe with style. The athletic-inspired Long Sleeve Zip Front One Piece Swimsuit from LE Sport completely covers the torso in style and sun protection while looking sporty and on-trend. It's also available in a sleeveless style with colorblocking. Dress details and Hollywood glamour abounds in the Lands' End Canvas collection. Lattice details add softness to one-piece swimsuits while keyholes in bikini tops and high-waist bottoms add a touch of drama. Clever Cover-Ups Lands' End swim cover-ups are so stylish that women wear them to the pool, pool party and beyond. There's a cover-up for every suit -- from floral and ombre caftans to a button-front boyfriend shirt, even swim shorts. For full, neck-to-ankle coverage, women can pair a UPF 50 rash guard with cover-up crop leggings that feature an attached skirt. Smart Design, Quality, Guaranteed. Period. The experts at Lands' End swim look at every stitch, every detail to ensure quality, function and fashion. From control swimsuits that are woven to provide control exactly where it's needed to bra cup options, long torso suits, mastectomy and maternity friendly options, designers work hard to ensure every woman fits in -- and fits in style -- at Lands' End. About Lands' End, Inc. Lands' End, Inc. ( : LE) is a leading multi-channel retailer of clothing, accessories, footwear and home products. We offer products through catalogs, online at www.landsend.com, www.landsendcanvas.com, and affiliated specialty and international websites, and through retail locations, primarily at Lands' End Shops at Sears® and standalone Lands' End Stores. We are a classic American lifestyle brand with a passion for quality, legendary service and real value, and seek to deliver timeless style for men, women, kids and the home. To view this release in a media-rich format, go to: http://landsend.new-media-release.com/2017swimwear/


News Article | October 27, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For the first time, scientists have revealed ancient gene mixing between chimpanzees and bonobos, mankind's closest relatives, showing parallels with Neanderthal mixing in human ancestry. Published today in the journal Science, the study from scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their international collaborators showed that 1% of chimpanzee genomes are derived from bonobos. The study also showed that genomics could help reveal the country of origin of individual chimpanzees, which has strong implications for chimpanzee conservation. Chimpanzees and bonobos are great apes found only in tropical Africa. They are endangered species and are supposedly fully protected by law, yet many chimpanzees and bonobos are captured and held illegally. To aid the conservation effort, researchers analysed the whole genome sequences of 75 chimpanzees and bonobos, from 10 African countries, and crucially included 40 new wild-born chimpanzees from known geographic locations. They discovered that there was a strong link between the genetic sequence of a chimpanzee, and their geographic origin. Dr Chris Tyler Smith, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: "This is the largest analysis of chimpanzee genomes to date and shows that genetics can be used to locate quite precisely where in the wild a chimpanzee comes from. This can aid the release of illegally captured chimpanzees back into the right place in the wild and provide key evidence for action against the captors." Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives of human beings. They diverged from a common ancestor between 1.5 and 2 million years ago and live in different areas of tropical Africa. Until now, it was thought that gene flow between the species would have been impossible, as they were physically separated by the Congo River. The study confirmed a main separation between chimpanzees and bonobos approximately 1.5 million years ago, and the presence of four chimpanzee subspecies in different regions. However, the researchers also found there were two additional gene flow events between the chimpanzee and bonobo populations, indicating that at least some individuals found their way across the river. Dr Yali Xue, from the Sanger Institute, said: "We found that central and eastern chimpanzees share significantly more genetic material with bonobos than the other chimpanzee subspecies. These chimpanzees have at least 1% of their genomes derived from bonobos. This shows that there wasn't a clean separation, but that the initial divergence was followed by occasional episodes of mixing between the species. The study also included researchers from Spain, Copenhagen Zoo and the University of Cambridge and showed that there have been at least two phases of secondary contact, 200-550 thousand years ago and around 150 thousand years ago, mirroring what is believed to have happened during the last 100 thousand years of the evolution of humans. Dr Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, leader of the study from the Institute of Biological Evolution (University Pompeu Fabra and CSIC), Barcelona, said: "This is the first study to reveal that ancient gene flow events happened amongst the living species closest to humans - the bonobos and chimpanzees. It implies that successful breeding between close species might have been actually widespread in the ancestors of humans and living apes." The Institute of Evolutionary Biology (IBE) is a joint center between Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) and the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), and was created in 2008 in Barcelona. IBE researchers study the processes and mechanisms that generate biodiversity, including fields like genetics and molecular evolution, population biology, biology of complex systems and the recovery of ancient DNA. https:/ The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is one of the world's leading genome centres. Through its ability to conduct research at scale, it is able to engage in bold and long-term exploratory projects that are designed to influence and empower medical science globally. Institute research findings, generated through its own research programmes and through its leading role in international consortia, are being used to develop new diagnostics and treatments for human disease. http://www. Wellcome exists to improve health for everyone by helping great ideas to thrive. We're a global charitable foundation, both politically and financially independent. We support scientists and researchers, take on big problems, fuel imaginations and spark debate. http://www.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: phys.org

Arrestin loops interact directly with the membrane adjacent to the GPCR. Credit: Jana Selent, Pompeu Fabra University. Researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin have been studying two proteins that play a vital role in many bodily processes. The aim of the research was to establish how G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and arrestin form complexes. The human GPCR family consists of nearly one thousand different types of membrane proteins, with the majority involved in sensory and neuronal processes. Results from this research, which has been published in the current issue of the journal Nature Communications, identify a previously unknown binding element critical to the arrestin - GPCR interaction. As crucial drug targets, G-protein-coupled receptors are responsible for the effectiveness of nearly half of all medicines prescribed today. GPCRs are integral membrane proteins that control and modulate the processing of sensory and physiological stimuli, such as those relevant to our sight and taste, or those involved in controlling our heart rate. Arrestins play a key role in controlling the activity and signal transduction of GPCRs inside the cells of the body. "GPCRs are the target of a wide variety of drug-based treatments, which is why it is so important for us to understand their structure and function, and to fully understand how these membrane proteins interact at the molecular level. In order to develop better drugs with fewer side effects, this knowledge is necessary," explains Dr. Martha Sommer, who chairs the Arrestin Working Group at Charité's Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics. Some of the side effects that occur with certain medicines (such as morphine-based drugs) are the result of arrestin-dependent signaling pathways. The researchers' close observation of the interactions between arrestins and GPCRs yielded crucial conclusions. "We asked ourselves how these two proteins manage to find each other, and what happens when they come together to form a complex. The recent crystal structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex prompted us to ask whether a section of arrestin called the C-edge might interact with the membrane adjacent to the GPCR," explains Dr. Sommer. "Using a combination of computer simulations, which we conducted in cooperation with Dr. Jana Selent at the UPF Barcelona, and site-directed fluorescence spectroscopy, we were able to show that loops within the C-edge of arrestin binds to the membrane." The existence of this type of interaction was previously unknown, and its discovery opens up a whole new field of research regarding how the membrane influences the function of arrestin. A better understanding of GPCR-arrestin interactions is essential if we are to develop drugs with fewer side effects. Dr. Sommer's team have already begun to explore the role of the membrane on the structure and interactions inside the GPCR-arrestin complex. More information: Ciara C M. Lally et al, C-edge loops of arrestin function as a membrane anchor, Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14258


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have been studying two proteins that play a vital role in many bodily processes. The aim of the research was to establish how G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and arrestin form complexes. The human GPCR family consists of nearly one thousand different types of membrane proteins, with the majority involved in sensory and neuronal processes. Results from this research, which has been published in the current issue of the journal Nature Communications*, identify a previously unknown binding element critical to the arrestin - GPCR interaction. As crucial drug targets, G-protein-coupled receptors are responsible for the effectiveness of nearly half of all medicines prescribed today. GPCRs are integral membrane proteins that control and modulate the processing of sensory and physiological stimuli, such as those relevant to our sight and taste, or those involved in controlling our heart rate. Arrestins play a key role in controlling the activity and signal transduction of GPCRs inside the cells of the body. "GPCRs are the target of a wide variety of drug-based treatments, which is why it is so important for us to understand their structure and function, and to fully understand how these membrane proteins interact at the molecular level. In order to develop better drugs with fewer side effects, this knowledge is necessary," explains Dr. Martha Sommer, who chairs the Arrestin Working Group at Charité's Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics. Some of the side effects that occur with certain medicines (such as morphine-based drugs) are the result of arrestin-dependent signaling pathways. The researchers' close observation of the interactions between arrestins and GPCRs yielded crucial conclusions. "We asked ourselves how these two proteins manage to find each other, and what happens when they come together to form a complex. The recent crystal structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex prompted us to ask whether a section of arrestin called the C-edge might interact with the membrane adjacent to the GPCR," explains Dr. Sommer. "Using a combination of computer simulations, which we conducted in cooperation with Dr. Jana Selent at the UPF Barcelona, and site-directed fluorescence spectroscopy, we were able to show that loops within the C-edge of arrestin binds to the membrane." The existence of this type of interaction was previously unknown, and its discovery opens up a whole new field of research regarding how the membrane influences the function of arrestin. A better understanding of GPCR-arrestin interactions is essential if we are to develop drugs with fewer side effects. Dr. Sommer's team have already begun to explore the role of the membrane on the structure and interactions inside the GPCR-arrestin complex. Dr. Martha Sommer Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics / Chair of the Arrestin Working Group (AG Arrestin) Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Tel: +49 30 450 524 200 Email: martha.sommer@charite.de


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A study led by researchers at the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) and the Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics at the Faculty of Medicine in Charité Hospital, Berlin, published in the journal Nature Communications, demonstrates that the cholesterol present in cell membranes can interfere with the function of an important brain membrane protein, through a previously unknown mode of interaction. Specifically, cholesterol is capable of regulating the activity of the adenosine receptor, by invading it and accessing the active site. This will allow new ways of interacting with these proteins to be devised that in the future could lead to drugs for treating diseases like Alzheimer's. The adenosine receptor belongs to the GPCR family (G Protein-Coupled Receptors), a large group of proteins located in cell membranes, which are key in the transmission of signals and communication between cells. GPCRs are therefore involved in the majority of important physiological processes, including the interpretation of sensory stimuli such as vision, smell, and taste, the regulation of the immune and inflammatory system, and behaviour modulation. "Cholesterol is an essential component of neuronal membranes, where GPCRs reside along with other proteins. Interestingly, the levels of cholesterol in the membrane are altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's, where GPCRs like the adenosine receptor play a key role", explains Jana Selent, head of the GPCR Drug Discovery research group at the GRIB, a joint programme between Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) and Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF). "This study has shown that cholesterol can exert direct action on this important family of proteins in neuronal membranes, the GPCRs, and establishes the basis for a hitherto unknown interaction pathway between the cell membrane and proteins", adds the researcher. Up to now, it was thought that membrane cholesterol could regulate the activity of these proteins through two mechanisms: either by altering the physical properties of the membrane, or by binding to the surface of the protein. In both cases, it was thought that cholesterol could only exercise its modulatory action from outside the protein. However, by using latest-generation molecular simulations the researchers were able to detect the fact that cholesterol can leave the neuronal membrane and get within the adenosine receptor, in particular accessing the receptor's active site. With this information, and in collaboration with Dr. Mairena Martin and Dr. José L. Albasanz from the University of Castilla-La Mancha, we designed an experimental protocol using cell assays to demonstrate that cholesterol is able to modulate the activity of this receptor by accessing its interior. "Cholesterol levels in cell membranes could have a more direct effect than previously thought on the behaviour of key proteins in central nervous system diseases. In particular, high levels of membrane cholesterol like those present in Alzheimer's patients probably block the adenosine receptor, which could in turn be related to certain symptoms observed in this disease", explains Ramón Guixà González, a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics at the Faculty of Medicine in Charité Hospital in Berlin and first author of the article. "Although other studies are needed to prove this relationship, this work provides key knowledge that could be used in the future in the development of new molecules that, like cholesterol, have the ability to get inside the receptor and modulate its activity", says the researcher. The results from this study represent a paradigm shift in the relationship between membrane cholesterol and GPCRs in the central nervous system, and open up new avenues of research in fields where the cholesterol-GPCR relationship is essential. It also appears that the cholesterol access pathway into the receptor is an evolutionary footprint. It is therefore necessary to discover whether the molecular mechanism described in this paper is present in other GPCRs and therefore potentially involved in a wide range of central nervous system diseases. Guixà-González R, Albasanz JL, Rodríguez-Epigares I, Pastor M, Sanz F, Martí-Solano M, Manna M, Martínez-Seara H, Hildebrand PW, Martí M, Selent J. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature Communications, 8:14505, 2017. (DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms14505) Explanatory video in which you can see how cholesterol leaves the neuronal membrane and get within the adenosine receptor: https:/


JACKSON, MS / ACCESSWIRE / February 21, 2017 / Bahamas Development Corporation (OTC PINK: BDCI) has executed an Asset Purchase Agreement (APA) to acquire a U.S. based wholesale performance wear apparel manufacturing company. The apparel manufacturing company currently generates approximately $100,000 a month in revenue. The apparel manufacturing acquisition announced today complements the previously announced acquisition of a fast-growing wholesale turnkey performance lifestyle apparel company, which itself generates approximately $1 million per year in revenue. While both companies focus on the "HOT" Athleisure category, each has its own existing operations and distribution channels. Both companies are synergistic in nature, and the acquisitions have been structured to avoid any dilution to BDCI. The apparel manufacturing company being acquired specializes in "MADE IN THE USA", 100% moisture wicking mesh polyester performance wear with UPF 40 Sun Protection, and dye sublimation printing. Services include creative, dye sublimation printing, cut and sew operations, custom packaging/labeling and fulfillment. The company manufactures private branded and co-branded apparel and services several clients. Sales are made through multiple websites, and other wholesale channels. Current customers include major fishing, marine & outdoor retail stores, marinas, special events, hospitality, agriculture, team sports, diving, and the U.S. military. As a result of the acquisition, BDCI expects to achieve economies of scale both with respect to raw material purchases, as well as other manufacturing processes. BDCI also aims to build and rollout new websites in order to expand its combined trademarked brands and to reach out directly to retail customers. The rise in Athleisure has given apparel sales a significant boost in the last couple of years. In 2014, US consumers spent $323 billion on apparel, footwear and accessories, according to The NPD Group. This was a $2 billion increase from the prior year, and largely thanks to dramatic growth in sales of activewear. Morgan Stanley predicts that, by 2020, activewear will represent $83 billion in sales, "stealing market share from non-athletic apparel." According to Stylus, "The Athleisure phenomenon looks set to continue into 2016 and beyond, and is now on course to become one of the fastest-growing global apparel product categories in the second half of this decade." Bahamas Development Corporation, in compliance with SEC regulations, may in the future use social media outlets like Facebook or Twitter and its own website to announce key information in compliance with Reg FD. For additional information about this release please contact: This news release contains "forward-looking statements" as that term is defined in Section 27(a) of the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Statements in this press release which are not purely historical are forward-looking statements and include any statements regarding beliefs, plans, expectations or intentions regarding the future. Such forward-looking statements include, among other things, estimates of services and equipment markets, release of corporate apps, growth of platform, target markets, product releases, product demand and, business strategy. Actual results could differ from those projected in any forward-looking statements due to numerous factors. Such factors include, among others, the inherent uncertainties associated with new projects and development stage companies. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this news release, and we assume no obligation to update the forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons why actual results could differ from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Although we believe that any beliefs, plans, expectations and intentions contained in this press release are reasonable, there can be no assurance that any such beliefs, plans, expectations or intentions will prove to be accurate. Investors should consult all of the information set forth herein and should also consider that any investment in securities is at risk. Details of the Company's business, finances, appointments and agreements can be found as part of the Company's continuous public disclosure on otcmarkets.com.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

ReelSkinz has updated it's website to proudly showcase it's vibrant, bright, and unique colors of high performance fishing shirts. Fishermen have been taking advantage of ReelSkinz outdoors fishing apparel since it launched in 2011 in Miami, Florida. They capture the beauty of real fish skins caught in the wild and place them on their high performance fishing apparel without any digital manipulation. Each fishing shirt sold by ReelSkinz has it's own unique story that starts at the first tug of the fishing line. Every fishing shirt includes SPF/UPF 50 weaved into every stitch to ensure maximum sun protection while out on the boat trying to catch the fish of the day. ReelSkinz has revamped their entire website to offer fishermen the ideal fishing gear for the outdoors lifestyle. Not only did ReelSkinz do a facelift on their website, but they added new performance fishing shirts and outdoor fishing gear for its fans. ReelSkinz is more than just a brand, they built themselves around the community of fishermen around the world. With an ever growing social media presence on Instagram has allowed them to hear instant feedback with its fishing fans. In addition, ReelSkinz has become a proud partner of 1% For The Planet, an organization that focuses on helping the oceanic wildlife community. There is no better way to give back to the open waters we love and enjoy so much. ReelSkinz added a new line of high performance fishing shirts that include vibrant colors such as hot coral, ocean blue, and neon orange to it's collection. ReelSkinz found it imperative to add new fishing gear to its line including their newly popular fishing face shields, which offer the ultimate sun protection to keep on fishing. These fishing masks are lightweight and can be worn multiple ways to help keep fishermen cool out on the open water while fishing all day. These fishing face shields come in swordfish, mahi, bass, blackfin tuna, and many of our other vibrant fish skins. Alongside ReelSkinz website relaunch they have added multiple way to purchase all of their high performance fishing apparel online. Their goal is to make it as easy as possible for fishing fanatics to buy and show off their new fishing shirts out on the boat. During checkout ReelSkinz offers Amazon Payments and Paypal to offer secure and quick checkouts. They also understood how important it was to be mobile friendly in todays internet world and have made their website 100% mobile. Consider shopping for all outdoor fishing apparel on the go as easy as ever. Don't wait any longer to check out ReelSkinz brand new fishing apparel website. Check out ReelSkinz to see their entire new line of high performance fishing shirts. They have even added a fresh off the boat sale section to their online store. Every time ReelSkinz introduces new fishing apparel they first put them on sale so all of their fans can get the first chance at reeling them in. These brand new fishing shirts are only on sale for a limited time before they are added to the normal fishing apparel line. Don't wait any longer to check out ReelSkinz brand new website and grab the newest high performance fishing shirts.

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