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Vasanthakumar D.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Roobakkumar A.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Rahman V.J.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Kumar P.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Green lacewing Mallada boninensis is an important predator of various soft-bodied arthropods, including red spider mites in tea. Efforts were made to develop mass rearing technology for this predator in a cost effective manner. Three combinations of artificial diets (Protinex (AD1), egg yolk (AD2) and royal jelly (AD3) based) were evaluated in comparison with standard diet (Protinex + Honey). All the tested diets influenced the egg-laying capacity of M. boninensis. The egg yolk-based diet resulted in more egg production than the other two diets. Survival of all life stages of M. boninensis was also observed on each diet and no significant difference was noticed. Results revealed that the egg yolk-based diet is the best of the three diet combinations tested in view of high fecundity and survival rate of M. boninensis. Source


Vasanthakumar D.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Babu A.,Tea Research Association | Shanmugapriyan R.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation | Subramaniam S.R.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute
International Journal of Acarology | Year: 2013

Azter (azadirachtin 0.15% EC), a neem-based pesticide, was evaluated for acaricidal activity against the red spider mite (RSM) Oligonychus coffeae at three different concentrations (1125, 2250 and 3375 mL/ha) under laboratory and field conditions. All the tested concentrations caused 100% mortality under laboratory conditions. When RSMs were provided with Azter-treated leaves for egg-laying, the numbers of eggs laid were significantly lower than that on untreated control leaves. Application of Azter did not affect the non-target organisms such as Mallada desjardinsi and Oligota pygmaea (natural enemies of RSM). Based on the results obtained from the laboratory studies, a field study was conducted to confirm the acaricidal effect of Azter and the results revealed the potential utility of this neem-based biopesticide as safer for natural enemies in an integrated pest management programme against RSM to minimize the pesticide load in the tea ecosystem. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Rahman V.J.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Babu A.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Babu A.,Tea Research Association | Roobakkumar A.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Perumalsamy K.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2013

Life table and predation of the predatory mite Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) on the red spider mite (RSM), Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner), a major pest of tea in India, were studied in the laboratory. Developmental time from egg to adult varied from 4 to 14 days at 30 to 15 °C, respectively; at 35 °C no larva survived. Survival of immature stages was more than 94 % at all temperatures. Threshold temperature for development of immature stages of females and males was 10 and 9. 9 °C, respectively, and thermal constant was 84. 03 degree-days for females and 80 for males. Sex ratio was female biased and temperature (20-30 °C) had no clear effect on sex determination. Egg hatchability was 73 % at 35 °C and >97 % at lower temperatures. Average number of eggs laid per female/day was higher at 30 °C than at 20 or 25 °C. The highest net reproductive rate (R0) was 40. 7, at 20 °C. Mean generation time (T) decreased from 28 to 13 days with temperature increasing from 20 to 30 °C. Weekly multiplication (6. 5) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) (0. 268) were highest at 30 °C. Males lived longer than females at every temperature tested. Longevity was highest at 20 °C (50 days for females and 55 for males). Survival and longevity were adversely affected by temperature above 30 °C. Daily consumption of prey increased with the advancement of predator's life stages; adult females consumed the highest numbers of prey items, preferably larvae and nymphs. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Rahman V.J.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Babu A.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Babu A.,Tea Research Association | Roobakkumar A.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute | Perumalsamy K.,UPASI Tea Research Foundation Tea Research Institute
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2012

Functional and numerical responses of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), infesting tea were determined in a laboratory on leaf discs. Prey consumption increased with increases in temperature and prey density. Handling time decreased and successful attack rate increased with increased temperature. N. longispinosus was more voracious on larvae and nymphs than on adults of O. coffeae. Handling time was higher on adult females than on larvae. Rate of predation leveled off at temperatures greater than 25°C. Functional responses to prey density at six temperatures and to each life stage of O. coffeae approximated the Holling type II model. The oviposition rate increased with prey consumption and temperature. On average, a predator consumed 1.62 adult female prey for every egg it laid. With a fixed number of prey available, predation rate per predator decreased with increased predator density. Source

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