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Kumar D.,Up Biomedical | Gupta A.,Up Biomedical | Nath K.,University of Pennsylvania
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2016

Advances in the application of NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer comprises a potential tactic for understanding the impaired biochemical pathways arising due to a disease evolvement and progression. This technique involves qualitative and quantitative estimation of plethora of small molecular weight metabolites of body fluids or tissues using state-of-the-art chemometric methods delivering an important platform for translational research from basic to clinical, to reveal the pathophysiological snapshot in a single step. This review summarizes the present arrays and recent advancements in NMR-based metabolomics and a glimpse of currently used medical imaging tactics, with their role in clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Ramos S.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Amorim E.,Up Biomedical | Elliott M.,University of Hull | Cabral H.,University of Lisbon | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

A major goal of current environmental policies is to preserve or return areas to a good ecological status, which should be assessed at the ecosystem level, using several biological elements, together with physical, chemical and pollution elements. This study investigated the use of early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with different human impacts would carry distinct larval and juvenile fish assemblages. We used two estuaries as models, the Ave and Cávado (NW Portugal) that have similar geomorphologies but are submitted to different human pressures. Surveys were conducted during spring and autumn 2009, and included the collection of larval and juvenile stages of fishes, together with the physical and chemical characterization of water and sediments. Several indicators of human pressure, namely sewage contamination and toxicology of water were assayed. Physical and chemical water characteristics did not vary between the two estuaries and exhibited a similar seasonal trend. However, during autumn, atypical freshet conditions were observed in the Cávado as a result of increased precipitation and river flow, illustrating hydrological pressures. Despite this, the Cávado with unmodified banks, lower nutrient load, organic matter and sewage contamination appeared less impacted than the Ave. Although the abundance and diversity were similar, the structure of larval fish assemblages varied between the two estuaries. Marine species dominated the Ave larval assemblages, while in the Cávado resident species were the most abundant taxa. Juvenile fish assemblages were more abundant and diverse in the Cávado, with a total of thirteen species against the eight species observed in the Ave. The Cávado larval and juvenile fish assemblages comprised more functional guilds than in the Ave estuary. The marine species Solea senegalensis and Dicentrarchus labrax were identified as responsible for the major differences in larval and juvenile fish assemblages, respectively. In the case of species that were simultaneously present during larval and juvenile phases, only two resident species were observed in the Ave, while five species were observed in the Cávado, including resident and marine juveniles. Thus, early life stages of fishes were indicative of a better ecological condition and environmental status of the Cávado estuary, which is less impacted and has a lower pollution level than the Ave estuary. The present study reinforced the idea that larval and juvenile stages of fishes can be useful tools for the assessment of ecological condition status of transitional waters especially in estuaries noted for their nursery function. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tulachan B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Meena S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Rai R.K.,Up Biomedical | Mallick C.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | And 10 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.


PubMed | Defense Institute Physiology and Allied science, Up Biomedical, Solid State Group, University of Delhi and Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2014

Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.


Chatterjee S.,National Botanical Research Institute | Srivastava S.,Up Biomedical | Khalid A.,University of Lucknow | Singh N.,National Botanical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2010

Profiling of metabolites is a rapidly expanding area of research for resolving metabolic pathways. Metabolic fingerprinting in medicinally important plants is critical to establishing the quality of herbal medicines. In the present study, metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaf and root of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), an important medicinal plant of Indian system of medicine (ISM) was carried out using NMR and chromatographic (HPLC and GC-MS) techniques. A total of 62 major and minor primary and secondary metabolites from leaves and 48 from roots were unambiguously identified. Twenty-nine of these were common to the two tissues. These included fatty acids, organic acids, amino acids, sugars and sterol based compounds. Eleven bioactive sterol-lactone molecules were also identified. Twenty-seven of the identified metabolites were quantified. Highly significant qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed between the leaf and root tissues, particularly with respect to the secondary metabolites. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bhatia A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Bharti S.K.,Up Biomedical | Tewari S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sidhu O.P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Roy R.,Up Biomedical
Phytochemistry | Year: 2013

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most valued Indian medicinal plant with several pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Metabolic profiling was performed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy on the fruits obtained from four chemotypes of W. somnifera. A combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS identified 82 chemically diverse metabolites consisting of organic acids, fatty acids, aliphatic and aromatic amino acids, polyols, sugars, sterols, tocopherols, phenolic acids and withanamides in the fruits of W. somnifera. The range of metabolites identified by GC-MS and NMR of W. somnifera fruits showed various known and unknown metabolites. The primary and secondary metabolites observed in this study represent MVA, DOXP, shikimic acid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic metabolic pathways. Squalene and tocopherol have been rated as the most potent naturally occurring compounds with antioxidant properties. These compounds have been identified by us for the first time in the fruits of W. somnifera. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on GC-MS and NMR data revealed clear distinctions in the primary and secondary metabolites among the chemotypes. The variation in the metabolite concentration among different chemotypes of the fruits of W. somnifera suggest that specific chemovars can be used to obtain substantial amounts of bioactive ingredients for use as potential pharmacological and nutraceuticals agents. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bharti S.K.,Up Biomedical | Bhatia A.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Tewari S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Sidhu O.P.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Roy R.,Up Biomedical
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry | Year: 2011

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most valued Indian medicinal plants with a number of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Metabolic profiling has been performed by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on fresh leaf and root tissue specimens from four chemotypes of W. somnifera. The HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy of lyophilized defatted leaf tissue specimens clearly distinguishes resonances of medicinally important secondary metabolites (withaferin A and withanone) and its distinctive quantitative variability among the chemotypes. A total of 41 metabolites were identified from both the leaf and root tissues of the chemotypes. The presence of methanol in leaf and root tissues of W. somnifera was detected by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra of leaves revealed clear variations in primary metabolites among the chemotypes. The results of the present study demonstrated an efficient method, which can be utilized for metabolite profiling of primary and secondary metabolites in medicinally important plants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Singh C.,Banaras Hindu University | Rai R.K.,Up Biomedical | Kayastha A.M.,Banaras Hindu University | Sinha N.,Up Biomedical
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry | Year: 2015

Ultra fast magic angle spinning (MAS) has been a potent method to significantly average out homogeneous/inhomogeneous line broadening in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy. It has given a new direction to ssNMR spectroscopy with its different applications. We present here the first and foremost application of ultra fast MAS (~60kHz) for ssNMR spectroscopy of intact bone. This methodology helps to comprehend and elucidate the organic content in the intact bone matrix with resolution and sensitivity enhancement. At this MAS speed, amino protons from organic part of intact bone start to appear in 1H NMR spectra. The experimental protocol of ultra-high speed MAS for intact bone has been entailed with an additional insight achieved at 60kHz. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Banaras Hindu University and Up Biomedical
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Magnetic resonance in chemistry : MRC | Year: 2016

Ultra fast magic angle spinning (MAS) has been a potent method to significantly average out homogeneous/inhomogeneous line broadening in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy. It has given a new direction to ssNMR spectroscopy with its different applications. We present here the first and foremost application of ultra fast MAS (~60kHz) for ssNMR spectroscopy of intact bone. This methodology helps to comprehend and elucidate the organic content in the intact bone matrix with resolution and sensitivity enhancement. At this MAS speed, amino protons from organic part of intact bone start to appear in (1) H NMR spectra. The experimental protocol of ultra-high speed MAS for intact bone has been entailed with an additional insight achieved at 60kHz.


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