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Genova, Italy

Genova C.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Rijavec E.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Grossi F.,UOS Tumori Polmonari
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2016

Squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has always been characterized by a limited number of therapeutic options and by the lack of actionable biomarkers compared to its non-squamous counterpart. Recent clinical trials have led to the approval of new anti-neoplastic drugs available to both non-squamous and squamous NSCLC, consisting in a vascular-disrupting agent and two immune check-point inhibitors; additionally, a monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is currently under evaluation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). While predictive molecular biomarkers have not been identified with consistency and are still highly demanded, these agents proved themselves noteworthy and can be considered a powerful addition to the available treatments for squamous NSCLC. © 2015 Taylor and Francis.

Rijavec E.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Genova C.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Alama A.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Barletta G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | And 9 more authors.
Future Oncology | Year: 2014

After several decades of modest results with nonspecific immune stimulants, immunotherapy has become an exciting approach in the treatment of cancer. Although non-small-cell lung cancer has not been considered an immunogenic disease for very long, a better understanding of tumor immunology and the identification of new targets have led to the development of many clinical trials of immune-based therapies for this neoplasm. Promising results from many clinical trials suggest that immunotherapy could be an effective strategy in the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Further studies are required to help clinicians in the selection of patients who are more likely to benefit from immunotherapy strategies by the identification of biomarkers and to understand when the combination of immunotherapy with other agents should be recommended. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

Genova C.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Rijavec E.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Barletta G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Burrafato G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | And 7 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: The inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represents an effective strategy for EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Afatinib is an irreversible erythroblastosis oncogene B (ErbB) family blocker, able to inhibit the kinase domains of EGFR, HER2 and HER4, and the transphosphorylation of ErbB3 that has recently been approved in the United States for the first-line treatment of EGFR-mutated NSCLC and in Europe and Japan for the treatment of EGFR-mutated TKI-naive patients. Areas covered: The authors analyzed the pharmacology and the clinical activity of afatinib in NSCLC through a review of the literature. Trials exploring different settings have been reported, including LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6, where the drug achieved better outcomes in terms of response rate, progression-free survival and quality of life compared with chemotherapy. The main toxicities of afatinib are gastrointestinal and skin-related adverse events. Expert opinion: Afatinib showed remarkable efficacy as a first-line treatment in the presence of common EGFR mutations. Afatinib showed some activity in NSCLC with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, although, currently, its efficacy after the failure of erlotinib or gefitinib has not been clearly stated. Direct clinical data comparing the activity and tolerability of different inhibitors are still needed. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Rijavec E.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Genova C.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Barletta G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Burrafato G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | And 8 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Despite recent advances with new chemotherapeutic agents and target therapies, the prognosis of NSCLC remains poor. Recent results from clinical trials of immunotherapeutic agents, especially with immune checkpoint inhibitors, make this approach very exciting in NSCLC. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 that is able to stimulate the antitumour immune response by promoting T-cell activation. Areas covered: We have reviewed the literature and have described the most important results obtained with ipilimumab in NSCLC in recent trials with a specific focus on its peculiar toxicity profile and pattern of response. Trials ongoing with ipilimumab are also reported. Expert opinion: The results from clinical trials with ipilimumab are promising. Some important issues in the near future will be to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers to select patients who could benefit from this drug. Further studies are warranted to understand how to combine ipilimumab with other anticancer strategies. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Barletta G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Genova C.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Rijavec E.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | Burrafato G.,UOS Tumori Polmonari | And 13 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Originally formulated as an intravenous (i.v.) agent, vinorelbine is also currently available as an oral chemotherapeutic agent. Oral vinorelbine has demonstrated significant activity in different settings for NSCLC, including adjuvant treatment for resected disease, concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced NSCLC and palliative chemotherapy for recurrent/metastatic NSCLC, as part of combination schedules or as a single-agent treatment.Areas covered: The authors explored the available data describing the use of oral vinorelbine in NSCLC. PubMed articles and abstracts presented at international conferences were analysed, and relevant trials were reported and discussed. Specific settings, including the treatment of elderly and unfit patients and metronomic schedules including oral vinorelbine, were evaluated. Available pharmacoeconomic data were also assessed.Expert opinion: Oral vinorelbine is an appealing agent, particularly as part of combination regimens containing platinum derivatives, although it can have a role as a single-agent treatment as well. Its safety profile is generally favourable and its route of administration is generally preferred by patients receiving chemotherapy. Compared to i.v. vinorelbine and other antineoplastic agents, oral vinorelbine has been reported to be advantageous in terms of cost savings. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

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