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San Filippo del Mela, Italy

Tafani M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Tafani M.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathology | Perrone G.A.,UOC Pathologic Anatomy | Pucci B.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathology | And 5 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Reprogramming technologies have been developed to revert somatic differentiated cells into pluripotent stem cells that can be differentiated into different lineages potentially useful in stem cell therapy. Reprogramming methods have been progressively refined to increase their efficiency, to obtain a cell population suitable for differentiation, and to eliminate viral plasmid which could be responsible for many unwanted side-effects when used in personalized medicine. All these methods are aimed to introduce into the cell genes or mRNAs encoding a set of four transcription factors (OCT-4, SOX-2, KLF-4 and c-MYC) or a set of three lincRNAs (large intragenic non-coding RNAs) acting downstream of the reprogramming transcription factors OCT-4, SOX-2 and NANOG. Translational clinical applications in human pathologies and in developmental, repair and cancer biology have been numerous. Cancer cells can be, at least in principle, reprogrammed into a normal phenotype. This is a recently raised issue, rapidly advancing in many human tumors, especially endocrine-related cancers, such as breast, prostate and ovarian ca. The present review aims to describe basic phenomena observed in reprogramming tumor cells and solid tumors and to discuss their meaning in human hormone-related cancers. We will also discuss the fact that some of the targeted transcription factors are "normally" activated in a number of physiological processes, such as morphogenesis, hypoxia and wound healing, suggesting an in vivo role of reprogramming for development and homeostasis. Finally, we will review concerns and warnings raised for in vivo reprogramming of human tumors and for the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in human therapy. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Di Vito M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | De Santis E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Perrone G.A.,UOC Pathologic Anatomy | Mari E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2011

The expression pattern of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms in normal and tumor thyroid tissues is still controversial and poor defined, therefore, a more detailed study of the distribution of these molecules is needed. Most discrepancies might be due to the methods utilized. We studied the expression of ER isoforms in human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in fine-needle aspiration biopsy-derived specimens, and in cells, using more accurate techniques, such as laser-capture microdissection, real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blot. Laser-capture microdissection allowed us to isolate homogeneous cell populations from human PTC surgical samples. Tumor, peritumor, or normal host tissue of the same sample were separately dissected and analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Estrogen receptor-α mRNA was more expressed in cancer-microdissected cells from human PTC, as compared with microdissected cells obtained from surrounding normal host tissue (450 vs 12, P = 0.001). A similar pattern was observed with Western blot for the ER-α protein. By contrast, ER-β mRNA expression was not detected among the microdissected tissue fractions. Fineneedle aspiration biopsy-derived specimens showed a similar expression pattern to ER. Moreover, human PTC cell line BCPAP and cancer stem cells from PTC, analyzed under hypoxic conditions, showed a hypoxia-driven increase in ER-α expression. In conclusion, ER-α might have an important role in human PTC, and its overexpression can be studied in routine needle aspirate as a possible marker of malignancy. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

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