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Padova, Italy

Cremolini C.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | Di Bartolomeo M.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Amatu A.,Niguarda Cancer Center | Antoniotti C.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | And 16 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: While the negative prognostic role of BRAF V600E mutation in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is well established, the impact of BRAF codons 594 and 596 mutations, occurring in <1% of CRCs, is completely unknown. The present work aims to describe clinical, pathological and molecular features and prognosis of BRAF codons 594 and 596 mutant mCRCs, compared with BRAF V600E mutant and wild-type ones. Patients and methods: Patients treated for mCRC at three Italian Institutions between October 2006 and October 2014, with available KRAS and NRAS codon 12, 13, 59, 61, 117 and 146 and BRAF codon 594, 596 and 600 mutational status, as detected by means of direct sequencing or matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MassArray, were included. Results: Ten patients bearing BRAF codons 594 or 596 mutated tumors were identified and compared with 77 and 542 patients bearing BRAF V600E mutated and BRAF wild-type tumors, respectively. While BRAF V600E mutated tumors were more frequently right-sided, mucinous and with peritoneal spread, BRAF 594 or 596 mutated were more frequently rectal, nonmucinous and with no peritoneal spread. All BRAF 594 or 596 mutated tumors were microsatellite stable. Patients with BRAF codons 594 or 596 mutated tumors had markedly longer overall survival (OS) when compared with BRAF V600E mutated [median OS: 62.0 versus 12.6 months; hazard ratio: 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.20-0.64), P = 0.002], both at univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions: BRAF codon 594 or 596 mutated mCRCs are different from BRAF V600E ones in terms of molecular features, pathological characteristics and clinical outcome. This is consistent with preclinical evidences of a kinase inactivating effect of these mutations. The role of CRAF in transducing the intracellular signal downstream BRAF 594 or 596 mutated proteins opens the way to further preclinical investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Cappetta A.,UOC Oncologia Medica 1 | Lonardi S.,UOC Oncologia Medica 1 | Pastorelli D.,UOC Oncologia Medica 1 | Bergamo F.,UOC Oncologia Medica 1 | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2012

Despite recent improvements in surgical techniques and chemotherapy treatments, locally advanced/metastatic gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and gastric cancer (GC) are still associated with poor clinical outcome. However, increased understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and its implementation in the treatment of breast, colon, lung, and other cancers in recent years have spurred focus on the development and incorporation of targeted agents in current therapeutic options for this difficult-to-treat disease. Such agents have the ability to target a variety of cancer relevant targets, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. In this review, we describe the current status of targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced GC and GEJ cancer, focusing on pre-clinical and clinical data available on monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors acting in these pathways, including completed and ongoing phase III studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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