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Milano, Italy

Breccia M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Luciano L.,University of Naples Federico II | Latagliata R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Castagnetti F.,University of Bologna | And 31 more authors.
Leukemia Research

We applied Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) stratification on a large cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) very elderly patients (>75 years) treated with imatinib, in order to observe the impact of concomitant diseases on both compliance and outcome. One hundred and eighty-one patients were recruited by 21 Italian centers. There were 95 males and 86 females, median age 78.6 years (range 75-93.6). According to Sokal score, 106 patients were classified as intermediate risk and 55 as high risk (not available in 20 patients). According to CCI stratification, 71 patients had score 0 and 110 a score ≥ 1. Imatinib standard dose was reduced at start of therapy (200-300. mg/day) in 68 patients independently from the evaluation of baseline comorbidities, but based only on physician judgement: 43.6% of these patients had score 0 compared to 34% of patients who had score ≥ 1. Significant differences were found in terms of subsequent dose reduction (39% of patients with score 0 compared to 53% of patients with score. ≥ 1) and in terms of drug discontinuation due to toxicity (35% of patients with score 0 vs 65% of patients with score ≥ 1). We did not find significant differences as regards occurrence of hematologic side effects, probably as a consequence of the initial dose reduction: 39% of patients with score 0 experienced grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity (most commonly anemia) compared to 42% of patients with score ≥ 1. Independently from the initial dose, comorbidities again did not have an impact on development of grade 3/4 non-hematologic side effects (most commonly skin rash, muscle cramps and fluid retention): 62% of patients with score 0 compared to 52.5% of patients with score ≥ 1. Notwithstanding the reduced dose and the weight of comorbidities we did not find significant differences but only a trend in terms of efficacy: 66% of patients with score 0 achieved a CCyR compared to 54% of patients with score ≥ 1. Comorbidities appeared to have an impact on median OS (40.8 months for patients with score 0 vs 20.16 months for patients with score ≥. 1) on EFS and on non-CML death rate. Our results suggest that treatment of very elderly CML patients might be influenced by personal physician perception: evaluation at baseline of comorbidities according to CCI should improve initial decision-making in this subset of patients. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zaja F.,Clinica Ematologica | Barcellini W.,UOC Oncoematologia | Cantoni S.,Science Di Ematologia Ospedale Nigurda Ca Granda | Carpenedo M.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Hematology

In patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) refractory to corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), splenectomy may result at higher risk of peri-operative complications and, for this reason, potentially contraindicated. The thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) romiplostim and eltrombopag have shown high therapeutic activity in primary ITP, but data of efficacy and safety regarding their use in preparation for splenectomy are missing. Thirty-one adult patients, median age 50 years, with corticosteroids and/or IVIG refractory persistent and chronic ITP who were treated with TPO-RAs (romiplostim= 24; eltrombopag= 7) with the aim to increase platelet count and allow a safer execution of splenectomy were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-four patients (77%) responded to the use of TPO-RAs with a median platelet count that increased from 11 × 109/L before starting TPO-RAs to 114 × 109/L pre-splenectomy, but a concomitant treatment with corticosteroids and/or IVIG was required in 19 patients. Twenty-nine patients underwent splenectomy while two patients who responded to TPO-RAs subsequently refused surgery. Post-splenectomy complications were characterized by two Grade 3 thrombotic events (1 portal vein thrombosis in the patient with previous history of HCV hepatitis and 1 pulmonary embolism), with a platelet count at the time of thrombosis of 260 and 167 × 109/L, respectively and one Grade 3 infectious event. TPO-RAs may represent a therapeutic option to improve platelet count and reduce the risk of peri-operative complications in ITP candidates to splenectomy. An increased risk of post-splenectomy thromboembolic events cannot be ruled out and thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin is generally recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Zaninoni A.,UOC Oncoematologia | Vercellati C.,UOC Oncoematologia | Imperiali F.G.,UOC Oncoematologia | Marcello A.P.,UOC Oncoematologia | And 9 more authors.

BACKGROUND Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a congenital hemolytic anemia caused by defects in red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins leading to premature RBC clearance in the spleen. The presence of RBC autoantibodies has never been extensively investigated in HS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS RBC antibody-bound immunoglobulin (Ig)G was investigated in 91 consecutive HS patients by mitogen-stimulated direct antiglobulin test (MS-DAT), a sensitive method able to magnify latent RBC antibody autoimmunity and related with hemolytic variables, previous splenectomy, and type of membrane defect. RESULTS A total of 61% of HS cases had RBC antibodies by MS-DAT (29 Band 3, 17 spectrin deficiency, and nine no defined defect). The amount of RBC-bound IgG was greater in HS compared with controls (236 ± 192 ng/mL vs. 52 ± 29 ng/mL, p < 0.0001), although lower than that observed in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA; 634 ± 371 ng/mL vs. 236 ± 192 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Western blot experiments showed that purified IgG fraction from MS-DAT-positive patients bind to α- and β-spectrin, Band 3, and Band 4.9. Positive cases displayed increased reticulocytosis and slightly reduced hemoglobin (Hb) values compared to negative ones. Patients displaying RBC-bound IgG of more than 250 ng/mL (the positive threshold of AIHA) showed increased number of spherocytes and mainly had spectrin deficiency. RBC-bound IgG and free Hb increased over time after storage at 4°C, a surrogate of ex vivo aging, more evidently in HS than controls, and particularly in Band 3 deficiency. CONCLUSION RBC autoantibodies were detected by MS-DAT in more than a half of HS patients. Positive cases showed a more evident hemolytic pattern suggesting a pathogenic role of these autoantibodies in RBC opsonization and splenic removal. © 2015 AABB. Source

Barcellini W.,UOC Oncoematologia | Fattizzo B.,UOC Oncoematologia | Zaninoni A.,UOC Oncoematologia | Radice T.,UOC Oncoematologia | And 18 more authors.

The clinical outcome, response to treatment, and occurrence of acute complications were retrospectively investigated in 308 primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) cases and correlated with serological characteristics and severity of anemia at onset. Patients had been followedup for a median of 33 months (range12-372); 60% were warm AIHA, 27% cold hemagglutinin disease, 8% mixed, and 5% atypical (mostly direct antiglobulin test negative). The latter 2 categories more frequently showed a severe onset (hemoglobin [Hb] levels ≤6 g/dL) along with reticulocytopenia. The majority of warm AIHA patients received first-line steroid therapy only, whereas patients with mixed and atypical forms were more frequently treated with 2 or more therapy lines, including splenectomy, immunosuppressants, and rituximab. The cumulative incidenceofrelapse was increasedin more severe cases (hazard ratio 3.08;95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.57 for Hb ≤6 g/dL; P <.001). Thrombotic events were associated with Hb levels ≤6 g/dL at onset, intravascular hemolysis, and previous splenectomy. Predictors of a fatal outcome were severe infections, particularly in splenectomized cases, acute renal failure, Evans syndrome, and multitreatment (4 or more lines). The identification of severe and potentially fatal AIHA in a largely heterogeneous disease requires particular experienced attention by clinicians. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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