Observational study and dietary education intervention in women with gestational diabetes mellitus at risk of developing type 2 diabetes: Preliminary findings [Studio osservazionale e di intervento di educazione alimentare in popolazione con pregresso diabete gestazionale a rischio per sviluppo di diabete mellito di tipo 2: Risultati preliminari]
De Mori V.,University of Milan |
Menegola E.,University of Milan |
Meregalli G.,UO Malattie Metaboliche e Diabetologia AO |
Pedrini W.,Servizio di Dietetica AO |
And 5 more authors.
Giornale Italiano di Diabetologia e Metabolismo | Year: 2015
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes. GDM is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. This study examined risk factors associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in women with previous GDM. Outpatients with pregnancy complicated by GDM between 2007 and 2011 were recalled and we recorded their medical history, anthropometric data and blood chemistry, eating habits and lifestyle. Blood tests for the main glyco-metabolic parameters were recommended, and they were asked to complete a three-day food diary to assess their daily energy intake of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. We also assessed their knowledge of the macronutrient content in foods. In all, 255 women were recalled; 66 gave informed consent (63 Italian, 3 North African); their age was 34.1 ± 4.7 years (mean ± SD) at conception and 39.6 ± 4.9 at final observation; pre-pregnancy weight was 67.6 ± 15.0 kg, with BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 5.01; current weight was 69.7 ± 16.5, BMI 26.6 ± 5.4; fasting plasma glucose (FPG: mg/dl) was 94.5 ± 18.9 at mean gestational week 20.8 ± 6.8, 106.7 ± 33.6 at follow-up. During the observation period, 12% developed T2DM, 24% had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Only 10.6% of women were given an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) within six months from delivery. Weight (p < 0.05), BMI (p < 0.05) and FPG (p < 0.005) were significantly higher at follow-up than before pregnancy. Among risk factors, family history of T2DM and improper lifestyle emerged. In conclusion, women with GDM had worse metabolic blood levels and anthropometric parameters after pregnancy, implying an increased risk of metabolic syndrome or T2DM. We plan further evaluation in the near future to verify the effectiveness of this educational intervention. © 2015 UTET Periodici Scientifici srl. All rights reserved.