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Huang C.,UNU MERIT | Huang C.,Maastricht University | Notten A.,UNU MERIT | Rasters N.,Maastricht University
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2011

We undertake a comprehensive review of more than 120 social science studies on nanotechnology, 90% of which are based on the analyses of the nanotechnology publications and patents. We discussed four intellectual debates formed by these studies, namely whether nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field, whether nanoscience and nanotechnology are closely interlinked, whether nanotechnology development is path dependent and who is winning the global nanorace. We also conduct a comparative analysis of bibliometric search strategies used in the literature to harvest the publications and patents, including lexical queries, evolutionary lexical queries, citation analysis, and the use of core journal sets to identify nanotechnology articles. Because most of the compared strategies, except the one using 10 core journals in the field, share a core set of keywords and thus harvest a common batch of publications, they produce very similar ranking tables of the top subject areas and journals and the most prolific countries and institutions. Moreover, the core journal strategy does not provide a robust delineation of an emerging field such as nanotechnology due to the fact that nanotechnology related articles are published in a wide range of journals. Also, the different criteria for selecting the core journals will affect the analytical results dramatically. © 2010 The Author(s).

Gault F.,UNU MERIT | Gault F.,Tshwane University of Technology
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by that definition of consumers who modify or develop products and then freely reveal the knowledge thus gained to others. A change to the definition, which also has implications for the measurement of innovation in the public sector, is proposed. The policy implications of user innovation by consumers and by firms are considered along with the importance of including consumer user innovation in official statistics. The paper ends with a programme for future work. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

De Jong J.P.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Von Hippel E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Gault F.,UNU MERIT | Gault F.,Tshwane University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Research Policy | Year: 2015

Empirical studies have shown that millions of individual users develop new products and services to serve their own needs. The economic impact of this phenomenon increases if and as adopters in addition to the initial innovators also gain benefits from those user-developed innovations. It has been argued that the diffusion of user-developed innovations is negatively affected by a new type of market failure: value that others may gain from a user-developed product can often be an externality to consumer-developers. As a result, consumer innovators may not invest in supporting diffusion to the extent that would be socially optimal. In this paper, we utilize a broad sample of consumers in Finland to explore the extent to which innovations developed by individual users are deemed of potential value to others, and the extent to which they diffuse as a function of perceived general value. Our empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that a market failure is affecting the diffusion of user innovations developed by consumers for their own use. Implications and possible remedies are discussed.

Guennif S.,University of Paris 13 | Ramani S.V.,UNU MERIT
Research Policy | Year: 2012

Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, a large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists and engineers. However, over sixty years, India has had much more success in building indigenous capabilities in pharmaceuticals than Brazil, at least to date. Why? In exploring the answer to this question we show that in both countries the design of State policy played a crucial role and the endogenous responses in the national system of innovation consisted of two parts. On the one hand, most of the time, the predicted and desired outcome was partially realized and on the other hand, there were invariably, other unpredicted responses that emerged. The latter unexpected elements, which were specific to the two countries, pushed them along distinctive trajectories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

In recent decades China has witnessed an impressive improvement in science and its scientific output has become the second largest in the world. From both quantitative and qualitative perspectives, this paper aims to explore China’s comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. This paper employs two datasets: publications in all journals and publications in the top 5 % journals by discipline. With the former database we investigate the comparative advantages of each academic discipline in terms of absolute output volume, and with the latter database we evaluate the scientific output published in prestigious resources. Different from the criticism stated in previous literature, this paper finds that the quality of China’s research (represented by papers published in high-impact journals) is promising. Since 2006 the growth of scientific publications in China has been driven by papers published in English-language journals. The increasing visibility of Chinese science seems to be paving the way for its wider recognition and higher citation rates. © 2015, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Doranova A.,UNU MERIT | Costa I.,UNU MERIT | Duysters G.,UNU MERIT
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading instruments of the Kyoto Protocol (KP). The CDM allows governments and business entities from developed countries to offset their emissions liabilities by reducing or avoiding emissions in developing countries, where it is often cheaper to do so. Our results reveal that the majority of the CDM projects utilise local sources of technology. We attempt to explain technology sourcing patterns in CDM projects through the use of knowledge based determinants. Our empirical analysis indicates that in countries with a stronger knowledge base in climate friendly technologies, CDM project implementers tend to use local, as well as a combination of local and foreign technologies, more than foreign technologies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang L.,UNU MERIT | Coccia M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Proceedings of ISSI 2015 Istanbul: 15th International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics Conference | Year: 2015

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolutionary pattern of international research collaborations. Using publication data from 1997 to 2012, this study decomposes international collaborations into two complementary types, intra-collaboration (within the same geographical area) and inter-collaboration (across different geographical areas). Our results show that the geographical concentration of international research collaborations is reducing. The formation of new network structure of international research collaborations is driven by the increase of inter-research collaborations of countries across different geographical areas rather than intracollaborations of countries within the same geographical area.

Ramani S.V.,UNU MERIT | Urias E.,UNU MERIT
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

Governments of developing countries can be in a vulnerable position with respect to patent protected drugs supplied by foreign firms, if the technology cannot be licensed or independently developed by local firms. In such instances, one possible solution is to negotiate for a price-drop with the patent holder in lieu of issuing a compulsory license. The present paper develops a game theoretic model of such bargaining and shows that while compulsory licenses do not occur under complete information, they can be issued under incomplete information. The model is tested against real episodes of compulsory licenses to derive policy insight. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Wong C.-Y.,University of Malaya | Wang L.,UNU MERIT
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2015

By empirical demonstration, this study extends the assessments of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in performing science and technology in previous studies by exploring their cumulative patterns of science and technology (proxied by publications and patents respectively). Projections of cumulative production in science and technology are made using logistic growth function. Our analyses show that - though having different growth trajectories in science production - the BRICS countries exhibit similar patterns in pursuing technology. This embodies the strong commitment of BRICS to improve their technological capabilities in the process of industrial development. Inspired by the Relative Impact Index (RII) proposed by Nesta and Patel, we propose the Relative Science Impact Index (RSII) to evaluate the relative impact of science and technology on the process of technological catching-up in emerging economies and examine the co-evolution between science-based patents and patent citations. Our correlation analysis between forward citation and RSII marks some distinctive pursuits of BRICS countries in science-based patenting activities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Science and Public Policy | Year: 2011

India is working towards becoming a 'knowledge superpower', expanding its technical education system. But despite a rapidly growing annual turnout of S&T graduates, there is still a disparagingly low ratio of R&D personnel in India's workforce, worrisome for its future S&T capabilities. A disquieting trend has been that graduates from even the best S&T institutions have increasingly chosen future professional or academic avenues that have little to do with their training, due to which, over time, India has lost its best science manpower. On examining a distinguished institution - IIT Madras - the paper unfolds the variety of interconnected incentives and disincentives at ground level that contribute to this situation. This paper is but a step towards indicating the vast amount of further investigation required in assessing whether India's technical education system has sufficiently delivered in its role as the actor primarily in charge of competence building in India's innovation system. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.

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