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Maastricht, Netherlands

Gault F.,UNU MERIT | Gault F.,Tshwane University of Technology
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by that definition of consumers who modify or develop products and then freely reveal the knowledge thus gained to others. A change to the definition, which also has implications for the measurement of innovation in the public sector, is proposed. The policy implications of user innovation by consumers and by firms are considered along with the importance of including consumer user innovation in official statistics. The paper ends with a programme for future work. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Kemp R.,UNU MERIT | Kemp R.,Maastricht University | Avelino F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Bressers N.,Erasmus University Rotterdam
European Transport - Trasporti Europei | Year: 2011

In this article we present a model for transforming a car-based mobility system into a more sustainable one. It is based on visions of sustainable mobility, the use of strategic experiments and special programmes for system innovation, to complement transport policies such as road pricing, emission standards and so on. The article does three things: it describes the model of transition management as a model for transformation and where it comes from, it offers recommendations for mobility policy derived from transition thinking, and it discusses the uptake of transition thinking in policy and practice. The conclusion is that transition management helps various actors to be more engaged with long-term change, but that a process of re-institutionalisation is needed to make serious progress to systems of mobility which combine user benefits with societal benefits.

De Jong J.P.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Von Hippel E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Gault F.,UNU MERIT | Gault F.,Tshwane University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Research Policy | Year: 2015

Empirical studies have shown that millions of individual users develop new products and services to serve their own needs. The economic impact of this phenomenon increases if and as adopters in addition to the initial innovators also gain benefits from those user-developed innovations. It has been argued that the diffusion of user-developed innovations is negatively affected by a new type of market failure: value that others may gain from a user-developed product can often be an externality to consumer-developers. As a result, consumer innovators may not invest in supporting diffusion to the extent that would be socially optimal. In this paper, we utilize a broad sample of consumers in Finland to explore the extent to which innovations developed by individual users are deemed of potential value to others, and the extent to which they diffuse as a function of perceived general value. Our empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that a market failure is affecting the diffusion of user innovations developed by consumers for their own use. Implications and possible remedies are discussed.

Wong C.-Y.,University of Malaya | Wang L.,UNU MERIT
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2015

By empirical demonstration, this study extends the assessments of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in performing science and technology in previous studies by exploring their cumulative patterns of science and technology (proxied by publications and patents respectively). Projections of cumulative production in science and technology are made using logistic growth function. Our analyses show that - though having different growth trajectories in science production - the BRICS countries exhibit similar patterns in pursuing technology. This embodies the strong commitment of BRICS to improve their technological capabilities in the process of industrial development. Inspired by the Relative Impact Index (RII) proposed by Nesta and Patel, we propose the Relative Science Impact Index (RSII) to evaluate the relative impact of science and technology on the process of technological catching-up in emerging economies and examine the co-evolution between science-based patents and patent citations. Our correlation analysis between forward citation and RSII marks some distinctive pursuits of BRICS countries in science-based patenting activities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Guennif S.,University of Paris 13 | Ramani S.V.,UNU MERIT
Research Policy | Year: 2012

Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, a large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists and engineers. However, over sixty years, India has had much more success in building indigenous capabilities in pharmaceuticals than Brazil, at least to date. Why? In exploring the answer to this question we show that in both countries the design of State policy played a crucial role and the endogenous responses in the national system of innovation consisted of two parts. On the one hand, most of the time, the predicted and desired outcome was partially realized and on the other hand, there were invariably, other unpredicted responses that emerged. The latter unexpected elements, which were specific to the two countries, pushed them along distinctive trajectories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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