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The evolution of a collaboration network is to some extent steered by the network topology itself. This is the reason behind the success of network evolution models and approaches to link prediction. At the same time, some changes are due to exogenous factors (i.e., factors external to the network itself). In this paper, we explore changes in the collaboration network of African countries (2000–2014), with a focus on detecting emergent links beyond endogenous network features. Using link prediction and machine learning, we generate an ‘expected’ (predicted) collaboration network based on past data and compare it with the actual network that evolved in later years. The results show that the intensity of collaboration with non-African countries is higher than expected, especially for countries that are scientifically more active. To a lesser extent, we also find an increase in collaboration within Africa, which seems mostly due to the scientifically less developed countries. Emergent collaborations are mostly found in the first half of the studied period; in the second half the network structure appears to stabilize. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Thutupalli A.,UNU MERIT | Iizuka M.,UNU MERIT
Industrial and Corporate Change | Year: 2016

The agricultural sector plays an important role in the provision of food, foreign exchange, and sustainable energy within many developing countries. This sector, however, has not been considered as a driving force of innovation and productivity increase in comparison to other sectors in the economy. However, recent economics and international business literature suggests that the agricultural sector (i) has become knowledge intensive with the rise of biotechnology and (ii) is a sector where firms in developing countries can play an important role in the innovation process, given their context-specific or in situ knowledge-based capital. In this article, we present a conceptual framework that characterizes the knowledge base required for agricultural innovation against the backdrop of globalization and rise of biotechnology. We then apply the framework to examine the catchup of Indian seed firms with Bacillus thuringiensis technology, an insect-resistant seed technology used in cotton hybrids. We focus on the role of the knowledge base in the catch-up process, specifically examining the dynamics of knowledge creation or acquisition by local seed firms based on their interactions with global as well as other local players. Our analysis reveals the diverse pathways followed by local firms to catch-up, and that the firms with the ability to efficiently integrate locationspecific (in situ) and scientific (global) were able to successfully catch-up and compete in domestic seed markets. © The Author 2016.

Huang C.,UNU MERIT | Huang C.,Maastricht University | Notten A.,UNU MERIT | Rasters N.,Maastricht University
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2011

We undertake a comprehensive review of more than 120 social science studies on nanotechnology, 90% of which are based on the analyses of the nanotechnology publications and patents. We discussed four intellectual debates formed by these studies, namely whether nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field, whether nanoscience and nanotechnology are closely interlinked, whether nanotechnology development is path dependent and who is winning the global nanorace. We also conduct a comparative analysis of bibliometric search strategies used in the literature to harvest the publications and patents, including lexical queries, evolutionary lexical queries, citation analysis, and the use of core journal sets to identify nanotechnology articles. Because most of the compared strategies, except the one using 10 core journals in the field, share a core set of keywords and thus harvest a common batch of publications, they produce very similar ranking tables of the top subject areas and journals and the most prolific countries and institutions. Moreover, the core journal strategy does not provide a robust delineation of an emerging field such as nanotechnology due to the fact that nanotechnology related articles are published in a wide range of journals. Also, the different criteria for selecting the core journals will affect the analytical results dramatically. © 2010 The Author(s).

Gault F.,UNU MERIT | Gault F.,Tshwane University of Technology
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by that definition of consumers who modify or develop products and then freely reveal the knowledge thus gained to others. A change to the definition, which also has implications for the measurement of innovation in the public sector, is proposed. The policy implications of user innovation by consumers and by firms are considered along with the importance of including consumer user innovation in official statistics. The paper ends with a programme for future work. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Guennif S.,University of Paris 13 | Ramani S.V.,UNU MERIT
Research Policy | Year: 2012

Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, a large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists and engineers. However, over sixty years, India has had much more success in building indigenous capabilities in pharmaceuticals than Brazil, at least to date. Why? In exploring the answer to this question we show that in both countries the design of State policy played a crucial role and the endogenous responses in the national system of innovation consisted of two parts. On the one hand, most of the time, the predicted and desired outcome was partially realized and on the other hand, there were invariably, other unpredicted responses that emerged. The latter unexpected elements, which were specific to the two countries, pushed them along distinctive trajectories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

In recent decades China has witnessed an impressive improvement in science and its scientific output has become the second largest in the world. From both quantitative and qualitative perspectives, this paper aims to explore China’s comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. This paper employs two datasets: publications in all journals and publications in the top 5 % journals by discipline. With the former database we investigate the comparative advantages of each academic discipline in terms of absolute output volume, and with the latter database we evaluate the scientific output published in prestigious resources. Different from the criticism stated in previous literature, this paper finds that the quality of China’s research (represented by papers published in high-impact journals) is promising. Since 2006 the growth of scientific publications in China has been driven by papers published in English-language journals. The increasing visibility of Chinese science seems to be paving the way for its wider recognition and higher citation rates. © 2015, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Doranova A.,UNU MERIT | Costa I.,UNU MERIT | Duysters G.,UNU MERIT
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading instruments of the Kyoto Protocol (KP). The CDM allows governments and business entities from developed countries to offset their emissions liabilities by reducing or avoiding emissions in developing countries, where it is often cheaper to do so. Our results reveal that the majority of the CDM projects utilise local sources of technology. We attempt to explain technology sourcing patterns in CDM projects through the use of knowledge based determinants. Our empirical analysis indicates that in countries with a stronger knowledge base in climate friendly technologies, CDM project implementers tend to use local, as well as a combination of local and foreign technologies, more than foreign technologies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ramani S.V.,UNU MERIT | Urias E.,UNU MERIT
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

Governments of developing countries can be in a vulnerable position with respect to patent protected drugs supplied by foreign firms, if the technology cannot be licensed or independently developed by local firms. In such instances, one possible solution is to negotiate for a price-drop with the patent holder in lieu of issuing a compulsory license. The present paper develops a game theoretic model of such bargaining and shows that while compulsory licenses do not occur under complete information, they can be issued under incomplete information. The model is tested against real episodes of compulsory licenses to derive policy insight. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Wong C.-Y.,University of Malaya | Wang L.,UNU MERIT
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2015

By empirical demonstration, this study extends the assessments of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in performing science and technology in previous studies by exploring their cumulative patterns of science and technology (proxied by publications and patents respectively). Projections of cumulative production in science and technology are made using logistic growth function. Our analyses show that - though having different growth trajectories in science production - the BRICS countries exhibit similar patterns in pursuing technology. This embodies the strong commitment of BRICS to improve their technological capabilities in the process of industrial development. Inspired by the Relative Impact Index (RII) proposed by Nesta and Patel, we propose the Relative Science Impact Index (RSII) to evaluate the relative impact of science and technology on the process of technological catching-up in emerging economies and examine the co-evolution between science-based patents and patent citations. Our correlation analysis between forward citation and RSII marks some distinctive pursuits of BRICS countries in science-based patenting activities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Science and Public Policy | Year: 2011

India is working towards becoming a 'knowledge superpower', expanding its technical education system. But despite a rapidly growing annual turnout of S&T graduates, there is still a disparagingly low ratio of R&D personnel in India's workforce, worrisome for its future S&T capabilities. A disquieting trend has been that graduates from even the best S&T institutions have increasingly chosen future professional or academic avenues that have little to do with their training, due to which, over time, India has lost its best science manpower. On examining a distinguished institution - IIT Madras - the paper unfolds the variety of interconnected incentives and disincentives at ground level that contribute to this situation. This paper is but a step towards indicating the vast amount of further investigation required in assessing whether India's technical education system has sufficiently delivered in its role as the actor primarily in charge of competence building in India's innovation system. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.

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